From Longevity Wiki

    Senolytics are compounds designed to target and eliminate senescent cells. Senescent cells are cells that have stopped dividing and have entered a state of permanent growth arrest without undergoing cell death, known as apoptosis. Despite their arrested growth, these cells can affect surrounding tissues through their secretion of inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and proteases, a phenomenon known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP).

    Senescent cells accumulate with age and are thought to contribute to various age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and various types of cancer, by promoting inflammation and tissue dysfunction. By selectively inducing death in senescent cells, senolytics aim to reduce this burden and alleviate age-related ailments, potentially extending healthy lifespan.

    Researchers are investigating various compounds as potential senolytics, including naturally occurring compounds like quercetin, fisetin, and more targeted synthetic drugs. The field is relatively new but rapidly growing, with increasing interest in how clearing senescent cells can improve health and combat diseases associated with aging. However, while promising in preclinical studies, the safety and efficacy of senolytic drugs are still being evaluated in clinical trials.

    History[edit | edit source]

    • 2019 Scientists at the Mayo Clinic report the first successful use of senolytics, a new class of drug with potential anti-aging benefits, to remove senescent cells from human patients with a kidney disease.[1]
    • 2021 Scientists report alternative approach to senolytics for removing senescent cells: invariant NKT (iNKT) cells.[2]
    • 2022 Biomedical gerontologists demonstrate a mechanism of anti-aging senolytics, in particular of Dasatinib plus Quercetin (D+Q) – an increase of α-Klotho as shown in mice, human cells and in a human trial.[3]
    • 2022 Scientists report that some apparently senescent cells – which are targeted by anti-aging senolytics – are required for regeneration, and suggest tailoring senolytics to precisely target harmful senescent cells while leaving the ones involved in regeneration intact.[4]
    • 2023 First senolytics discovered using artificial intelligence: Teams from the University of Edinburgh and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology independently report the discovery of senolytics using artificial intelligence for screening large chemical libraries. The works reported compounds of comparable efficacy and increased potency than other known senolytics.[5][6]

    See Also[edit | edit source]

    Todo[edit | edit source]

    References[edit | edit source]

    1. Hickson LJ et al.: Senolytics decrease senescent cells in humans: Preliminary report from a clinical trial of Dasatinib plus Quercetin in individuals with diabetic kidney disease. EBioMedicine 2019. (PMID 31542391) [PubMed] [DOI] [Full text] BACKGROUND: Senescent cells, which can release factors that cause inflammation and dysfunction, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), accumulate with ageing and at etiological sites in multiple chronic diseases. Senolytics, including the combination of Dasatinib and Quercetin (D + Q), selectively eliminate senescent cells by transiently disabling pro-survival networks that defend them against their own apoptotic environment. In the first clinical trial of senolytics, D + Q improved physical function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal senescence-associated disease, but to date, no peer-reviewed study has directly demonstrated that senolytics decrease senescent cells in humans. METHODS: In an open label Phase 1 pilot study, we administered 3 days of oral D 100 mg and Q 1000 mg to subjects with diabetic kidney disease (N = 9; 68·7 ± 3·1 years old; 2 female; BMI:33·9 ± 2·3 kg/m2; eGFR:27·0 ± 2·1 mL/min/1·73m2). Adipose tissue, skin biopsies, and blood were collected before and 11 days after completing senolytic treatment. Senescent cell and macrophage/Langerhans cell markers and circulating SASP factors were assayed. FINDINGS: D + Q reduced adipose tissue senescent cell burden within 11 days, with decreases in p16INK4A-and p21CIP1-expressing cells, cells with senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, and adipocyte progenitors with limited replicative potential. Adipose tissue macrophages, which are attracted, anchored, and activated by senescent cells, and crown-like structures were decreased. Skin epidermal p16INK4A+ and p21CIP1+ cells were reduced, as were circulating SASP factors, including IL-1α, IL-6, and MMPs-9 and -12. INTERPRETATION: "Hit-and-run" treatment with senolytics, which in the case of D + Q have elimination half-lives <11 h, significantly decreases senescent cell burden in humans. FUND: NIH and Foundations. Identifier: NCT02848131. Senescence, Frailty, and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Functionality in Chronic Kidney Disease: Effect of Senolytic Agents.
    2. Arora S et al.: Invariant Natural Killer T cells coordinate removal of senescent cells. Med 2021. (PMID 34617070) [PubMed] [DOI] [Full text] BACKGROUND: The failure of immune surveillance to remove senescent cells drive age-related diseases. Here, we target an endogenous immune surveillance mechanism that can promote elimination of senescent cells and reverse disease progression. METHODS: We identify a class of lipid-activated T cells, invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs) are involved in the removal of pathologic senescent cells. We use two disease models in which senescent cells accumulate to test whether activation of iNKT cells was sufficient to eliminate senescent cells in vivo. FINDINGS: Senescent preadipocytes accumulate in white adipose tissue of chronic high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice, and activation of iNKT cells with the prototypical glycolipid antigen alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) led to a reduction of these cells with improved glucose control. Similarly, senescent cells accumulate within the lungs of mice injured by inhalational bleomycin, and αGalCer-induced activation of iNKT cells greatly limited this accumulation, decreased the lung fibrosis and improved survival. Furthermore, co-culture experiments showed that the preferential cytotoxic activity of iNKT cells to senescent cells is conserved in human cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results uncover a senolytic capacity of tissue-resident iNKT cells and pave the way for anti-senescence therapies that target these cells and their mechanism of activation.
    3. Zhu Y et al.: Orally-active, clinically-translatable senolytics restore α-Klotho in mice and humans. EBioMedicine 2022. (PMID 35292270) [PubMed] [DOI] [Full text] BACKGROUND: α-Klotho is a geroprotective protein that can attenuate or alleviate deleterious changes with ageing and disease. Declines in α-Klotho play a role in the pathophysiology of multiple diseases and age-related phenotypes. Pre-clinical evidence suggests that boosting α-Klotho holds therapeutic potential. However, readily clinically-translatable, practical strategies for increasing α-Klotho are not at hand. Here, we report that orally-active, clinically-translatable senolytics can increase α-Klotho in mice and humans. METHODS: We examined α-Klotho expression in three different human primary cell types co-cultured with conditioned medium (CM) from senescent or non-senescent cells with or without neutralizing antibodies. We assessed α-Klotho expression in aged, obese, and senescent cell-transplanted mice treated with vehicle or senolytics. We assayed urinary α-Klotho in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) who were treated with the senolytic drug combination, Dasatinib plus Quercetin (D+Q). FINDINGS: We found exposure to the senescent cell secretome reduces α-Klotho in multiple nonsenescent human cell types. This was partially prevented by neutralizing antibodies against the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors, activin A and Interleukin 1α (IL-1α). Consistent with senescent cells' being a cause of decreased α-Klotho, transplanting senescent cells into younger mice reduced brain and urine α-Klotho. Selectively removing senescent cells genetically or pharmacologically increased α-Klotho in urine, kidney, and brain of mice with increased senescent cell burden, including naturally-aged, diet-induced obese (DIO), or senescent cell-transplanted mice. D+Q increased α-Klotho in urine of patients with IPF, a disease linked to cellular senescence. INTERPRETATION: Senescent cells cause reduced α-Klotho, partially due to their production of activin A and IL-1α. Targeting senescent cells boosts α-Klotho in mice and humans. Thus, clearing senescent cells restores α-Klotho, potentially opening a novel, translationally-feasible avenue for developing orally-active small molecule, α-Klotho-enhancing clinical interventions. Furthermore, urinary α-Klotho may prove to be a useful test for following treatments in senolytic clinical trials. FUNDING: This work was supported by National Institute of Health grants AG013925 (J.L.K.), AG062413 (J.L.K., S.K.), AG044271 (N.M.), AG013319 (N.M.), and the Translational Geroscience Network (AG061456: J.L.K., T.T., N.M., S.B.K., S.K.), Robert and Arlene Kogod (J.L.K.), the Connor Group (J.L.K.), Robert J. and Theresa W. Ryan (J.L.K.), and the Noaber Foundation (J.L.K.). The previous IPF clinical trial was supported by the Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers at WFSM (AG021332: J.N.J., S.B.K.), UTHSCA (AG044271: A.M.N.), and the Translational Geroscience Network.
    4. Reyes NS et al.: Sentinel p16INK4a+ cells in the basement membrane form a reparative niche in the lung. Science 2022. (PMID 36227993) [PubMed] [DOI] [Full text] We engineered an ultrasensitive reporter of p16INK4a, a biomarker of cellular senescence. Our reporter detected p16INK4a-expressing fibroblasts with certain senescent characteristics that appeared shortly after birth in the basement membrane adjacent to epithelial stem cells in the lung. Furthermore, these p16INK4a+ fibroblasts had enhanced capacity to sense tissue inflammation and respond through their increased secretory capacity to promote epithelial regeneration. In addition, p16INK4a expression was required in fibroblasts to enhance epithelial regeneration. This study highlights a role for p16INK4a+ fibroblasts as tissue-resident sentinels in the stem cell niche that monitor barrier integrity and rapidly respond to inflammation to promote tissue regeneration.
    5. Smer-Barreto V et al.: Discovery of senolytics using machine learning. Nat Commun 2023. (PMID 37301862) [PubMed] [DOI] [Full text] Cellular senescence is a stress response involved in ageing and diverse disease processes including cancer, type-2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and viral infection. Despite growing interest in targeted elimination of senescent cells, only few senolytics are known due to the lack of well-characterised molecular targets. Here, we report the discovery of three senolytics using cost-effective machine learning algorithms trained solely on published data. We computationally screened various chemical libraries and validated the senolytic action of ginkgetin, periplocin and oleandrin in human cell lines under various modalities of senescence. The compounds have potency comparable to known senolytics, and we show that oleandrin has improved potency over its target as compared to best-in-class alternatives. Our approach led to several hundred-fold reduction in drug screening costs and demonstrates that artificial intelligence can take maximum advantage of small and heterogeneous drug screening data, paving the way for new open science approaches to early-stage drug discovery.
    6. Wong F et al.: Discovering small-molecule senolytics with deep neural networks. Nat Aging 2023. (PMID 37142829) [PubMed] [DOI] [Full text] The accumulation of senescent cells is associated with aging, inflammation and cellular dysfunction. Senolytic drugs can alleviate age-related comorbidities by selectively killing senescent cells. Here we screened 2,352 compounds for senolytic activity in a model of etoposide-induced senescence and trained graph neural networks to predict the senolytic activities of >800,000 molecules. Our approach enriched for structurally diverse compounds with senolytic activity; of these, three drug-like compounds selectively target senescent cells across different senescence models, with more favorable medicinal chemistry properties than, and selectivity comparable to, those of a known senolytic, ABT-737. Molecular docking simulations of compound binding to several senolytic protein targets, combined with time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer experiments, indicate that these compounds act in part by inhibiting Bcl-2, a regulator of cellular apoptosis. We tested one compound, BRD-K56819078, in aged mice and found that it significantly decreased senescent cell burden and mRNA expression of senescence-associated genes in the kidneys. Our findings underscore the promise of leveraging deep learning to discover senotherapeutics.