Procyanidin C1 (PCC1)

    From Longevity Wiki

    Procyanidin C1 (PCC1) is a molecule found in grape (Vitis vinifera),[1] unripe apples,[2] and cinnamon.[3] It can be isolated from grape seed extract and is content in wine.

    Procyanidin C1 has been shown to be an effective senolytic agent in wild-type mice, with effects of increased lifespan (+9.4%), reduced senescence markers and making them fitter. It was also found to greatly increase the effectiveness of chemotherapy in mice in which human prostate tumor cells were implanted.[4]

    Studies[edit | edit source]

    References[edit | edit source]

    1. Proanthocyanidin composition of red Vitis vinifera varieties from the Douro valley during ripening : Influence of cultivation altitude. Mateus Nuno, Marques Sara, Goncalves Ana C., Machado José M. and De Freitas Victor, American journal of enology and viticulture, 2001, vol. 52, no2, pp. 115-121,
    2. Nakano N et al.: Procyanidin C1 from apple extracts inhibits Fc epsilon RI-mediated mast cell activation. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2008. (PMID 18594151) [PubMed] [DOI] BACKGROUND: Polyphenol-enriched fractions, which are extracted from unripe apples (Rosaceae, Malus spp.), consisting of procyanidins (polymers of catechins) are known to have an anti-allergenic effect on patients with various allergic diseases. Although it has been reported that apple extracts inhibit histamine release from mast cells, the molecular mechanisms for this anti-allergenic effect are not well understood. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which apple extracts induce their anti-allergenic effects, the effects of purified apple extract components on high-affinity receptors for IgE (Fc epsilon RI)-mediated mast cell activation were investigated. METHODS: The anti-allergic effect of oral administration of apple procyanidin extracts on passive cutaneous anaphylactic responses of BALB/c mice was assessed. We evaluated the effects of procyanidin C1 (PC1) [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin], a component of the procyanidin fraction, on mouse bone-marrow-derived mast cell degranulation, cytokine production, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and on the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) of cells stimulated by Fc epsilon RI cross-linking in vitro. RESULTS: In an in vivo study, oral administration of the procyanidin fraction suppressed the mast-cell-dependent allergic reaction. In in vitro studies, PC1 dose-dependently decreased Fc epsilon RI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production of mast cells. Furthermore, PC1 inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and linker for activation of T cells, and the ROS generation in stimulated mast cells. CONCLUSIONS: PC1 suppresses Fc epsilon RI-mediated mast cell activation by inhibiting intracellular signaling pathways. These observations provide evidence for the anti-allergenic effects of the procyanidin-enriched apple extract.
    3. Sun P et al.: Procyanidin C1, a Component of Cinnamon Extracts, Is a Potential Insulin Sensitizer That Targets Adipocytes. J Agric Food Chem 2019. (PMID 31334651) [PubMed] [DOI] Natural products are one of the main sources for discovering new lead compounds. We previously reported that cinnamon extract has a promising effect in regulating lipid tissue volume and insulin sensitivity in vivo. However, its effective component and the underlying mechanism are not known. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of different components of cinnamon on regulating insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Functional assay revealed that, of the six major components of cinnamon extracts, the B-type procyanidin, procyanidin C1, improves the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells (TG content: 1.10 ± 0.09 mM at a dosage of 25 μM vs 0.67 ± 0.02 mM in vehicle group, p < 0.001) and promotes insulin-induced glucose uptake (8.58 ± 1.43 at a dosage of 25 μM vs 3.05 ± 1.24 in vehicle group, p < 0.001). Mechanism studies further suggested that procyanidin C1 activates the AKT-eNOS pathway, thus up-regulating glucose uptake and enhancing insulin sensitivity in mature adipocytes. Taken together, our study identified B-type procyanidin C1, a component of cinnamon extract, that stimulates preadipocyte differentiation and acts as a potential insulin action enhancer through the AKT-eNOS pathway in mature adipocytes.
    4. Xu Q et al.: The flavonoid procyanidin C1 has senotherapeutic activity and increases lifespan in mice. Nat Metab 2021. (PMID 34873338) [PubMed] [DOI] [Full text] Ageing-associated functional decline of organs and increased risk for age-related chronic pathologies is driven in part by the accumulation of senescent cells, which develop the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Here we show that procyanidin C1 (PCC1), a polyphenolic component of grape seed extract (GSE), increases the healthspan and lifespan of mice through its action on senescent cells. By screening a library of natural products, we find that GSE, and PCC1 as one of its active components, have specific effects on senescent cells. At low concentrations, PCC1 appears to inhibit SASP formation, whereas it selectively kills senescent cells at higher concentrations, possibly by promoting production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. In rodent models, PCC1 depletes senescent cells in a treatment-damaged tumour microenvironment and enhances therapeutic efficacy when co-administered with chemotherapy. Intermittent administration of PCC1 to either irradiated, senescent cell-implanted or naturally aged old mice alleviates physical dysfunction and prolongs survival. We identify PCC1 as a natural senotherapeutic agent with in vivo activity and high potential for further development as a clinical intervention to delay, alleviate or prevent age-related pathologies.