2023-07-19 - Talk Dr. David Sinclair - BIOHACK 2.0 - How To Live LONGER & AGE BETTER

    From Longevity Wiki


    0:03 foreign
    0:13 Ron White I'm I'm Ron White tonight
    0:19 and uh and you you have the the fortune of uh of having me with wine in my hands so whatever you ask is gonna
    0:27 give you a big truthful answer right how do I live longer that's a good
    0:32 question but I don't know if you know me for uh for the red wine story that was uh
    0:39 about 12 13 years ago but when we found that red wine in particular a molecule
    0:45 in red wine called Resveratrol would it would basically make animals resistant to the effects of a western
    0:52 high fat diet and live just as long as an animal that was thin and healthy
    0:57 uh we published that and that that was some of the the media that I first was
    1:03 exposed to that was the Barbara Walters interview in 60 minutes but sales of red wine went up 30 percent
    1:10 yeah right so uh so I've since learned invest in things that are going to go up
    1:17 in price no um but that we've come a long way since then a long long way
    1:22 um and I'm fortunate you all have a copy of my first book which uh is a
    1:28 description of really why we should think about our lives very
    1:34 differently most people are going through their lives right now not realizing that
    1:39 they're going to live a lot longer than they think a lot longer we look at our grandparents
    1:44 and sometimes our parents and think okay that's how long we're going to live but the truth is that our generations
    1:51 and even more so our children's generation and you know we can talk about our
    1:57 grandkids what's going to happen is that we're going to continue to live longer and longer
    2:02 but the real question what's most important to me is are we going to live healthier because there's no point in
    2:09 keeping the body alive which is what modern quote unquote medicine is doing
    2:14 if it's going to keep our brains the same age right and that's what we've been doing we haven't been very good at
    2:20 keeping our brains Young so my goal is really to first of all understand why do we age
    2:26 how do we slow it down is it reversible and can we keep the whole body younger
    2:32 and I believe we can and that's what I'm going to tell you about tonight so uh
    2:38 uh no I'm actually 75. well that that's a joke but I'm in my
    2:43 50s now so it's it's getting more and more personal but I started off this project when I
    2:49 was four years old I know it's hard to believe but you'll read about the story that my grandmother
    2:55 who raised me um in part she was a very young grandmother she had my father she gave
    3:01 birth to my father when she was 15. so to me she wasn't a grandmother she was more like a friend
    3:07 and she wasn't just young she wasn't just in her 40s when I was a kid but she was young at heart she was so immature
    3:14 and irresponsible it was excellent and my mother really didn't appreciate that at all but I was raised essentially by
    3:21 my grandmother who taught me a few things in life which is the reason I'm here today talking to you
    3:26 the first was adults screw up everything and she had lived through World War II
    3:31 and the aftermath and she thought wow humans really can do a lot of bad things
    3:37 so she said to you know a little four-year-old David you have to do really good things and show Humanity
    3:43 the best that they can be stay young six is the youngest the best age it's
    3:49 it's uh so if you ask my wife I'm definitely still a kid in my mind
    3:55 um she's the one that makes sure everything runs on time and the kids actually get to school but it's been great for my career
    4:02 because I'm a scientist and scientists succeed typically if they stay young and
    4:07 why is that helpful well it's not the immaturity and the irresponsibility that's that's helpful it's the Curiosity
    4:15 The Wonder of life and I've managed to keep that and I struggle to keep it because the world is
    4:22 a a scary and sad Place many times but what I try to do my The Secret of My
    4:28 success as a scientist to share that with you is the following I try to imagine what life would look
    4:37 like to an alien what I mean by that I mean that if we
    4:42 can get rid of every preconceived idea we've never watched a movie we've never delved into politics there's no
    4:49 tradition and we just looked at Humanity from above and said how do they score are we a one out of
    4:57 five or they have five out of five I think we're kind of a two out of five at
    5:02 this point and we can do a lot better and one of the things that aliens would do when they looked at us they would say
    5:08 well great they figured out Pi the debt that the uh
    5:15 the numero numeral pi to a million decimal places great get a gold star for
    5:20 that they figured out equals mc squared that's pretty good kind of advancing
    5:26 what else would be good well they've traveled to a rock that's floating around their Planet good stuff guys
    5:31 but they'd say well what about medicine and we'd say well
    5:37 we're tackling this heart disease it's really bad and then there's diabetes we've got to solve that and they'd say
    5:45 that's great but you know what causes all those things I might say uh not sure what they'd say
    5:51 aging aging is your problem and we would right now in our civilization we'd say
    5:57 aging isn't that just natural isn't shouldn't we just deal with that and they said the aliens would say
    6:04 guys and ladies aging
    6:09 is just as natural as cancer and heart disease and Alzheimer's why are you focusing on all those things that kill
    6:16 you while ignoring all the things that cause those things in the first place
    6:21 so my argument is why are we focusing on what causes us to fall off the cliff without even talking about let alone
    6:28 working on in a big way what drives us to that edge of the cliff in the first place
    6:34 and so my mother she died a few years ago from lung cancer and I'll be the first person to say lung cancer and
    6:40 cancer in general is a great pursuit to solve cancer but we spend I think it's about five
    6:46 billion dollars a year just on Research alone on cancer
    6:52 but cancer is only part of the story if you smoke like my mother did your chance
    6:58 of getting cancer lung cancer goes up by about five-fold which is really bad right so we try not
    7:04 to smoke and there's big government campaigns to try and prevent it but if you go from 20 to 70 your chances
    7:13 of getting lung cancer go up by 500 fold and nobody's even talking about it so what's the major killer it's aging so my
    7:20 goal with my research at Harvard Medical School which I've been doing at Harvard for 20 years and
    7:26 five years over the road at MIT is to figure out
    7:32 why do we age I mean does any does anyone anyone have a clue why we age does anyone really and do any of you
    7:38 think about it probably not right because even doctors who treat aging the gerontologists
    7:45 they don't think about it either it's as though we're we're we've evolved to not even think about it and I think the
    7:51 reason is that it's too painful to think about mortality I mean let's do a little
    7:56 experiment I've never done this before this is off the cuff uh think about your parents if they're
    8:03 still alive that's great if they're not imagine that they're still with you
    8:08 what would you give for an extra month with with them to be able to talk to them spend time with them show them
    8:14 what you've been doing spend time with the grandkids all right
    8:20 those those are the important things in life and we we don't even think about our own
    8:25 mortality typically um it's really quite painful right to think that one day literally none of
    8:33 this will be around for us and we'll be we'll be out of here that's scary stuff right you've got the whole whole uh what
    8:39 about 100 religions to help us with that but my book is is not a negative message
    8:46 it's not oh let's all freak out because we're gonna die it's more let's focus on what's going
    8:54 wrong during aging and try and keep all of us our parents ourselves healthier until 90 or 100 or Beyond
    9:02 and the good news is the science which I'll tell you about tonight says that it's not about extending
    9:07 lifespan even though that's the title of the book it's about extending Health span so that
    9:13 you don't have to be sick when you're 70 or 80. and I'll show you that it's very possible with things that we can do
    9:20 today with our lives and I I'm quite happy that I heard some of the right things tonight about what you should be
    9:27 doing the other great message and um
    9:32 inspiring fact is that only 20 of your life span and health in old age
    9:39 20 is genetic and we know that because we've studied Twins and twins there's
    9:45 always a good good twin and a bad twin right and the bad twin who goes in the sun who smokes who doesn't exercise who
    9:52 eats a lot of food that twin will age rapidly not just be sick but but
    9:57 literally you can measure aging now I'll tell you about the clock in our bodies
    10:02 so we know that 80 percent of our existence and our health is in our own hands that's great that's really my
    10:10 message and one of the reasons I wrote the book is that don't be afraid of Aging take action because you really can
    10:16 have a big impact on your own life um and spread the word because there's really a lot we can do fairly simple
    10:23 things to live longer and healthier all right so that's
    10:31 let's see if we can get this
    10:38 all right okay so this is a a picture of a young person an old
    10:44 person and when I ask you how long do you want to live which I will do think about that
    10:49 I want you to imagine that some of the technologies that I'm going to talk about tonight
    10:54 and the things you can do will actually work okay so you might have an extra five years ten years
    11:00 so my question to you is it's a multiple choice question but you get to get to
    11:06 vote once um who of you wants to live just to 80
    11:11 and then and then uh you know pass away is 80
    11:17 enough for you you are the first audience who has zero
    11:22 at 80. fantastic what that means is uh either I've convinced you but I think
    11:28 what more importantly what it says is that you're an audience who's really enjoying life
    11:34 why not why if you love life why would you want it to end of course not as long as you're healthy
    11:40 and enjoying what you're doing nobody wants to die if I actually told you you're all
    11:46 110 and that you know imagine we go up to City Hall in Cambridge and there's a
    11:52 someone at the desk and they made a mistake on your birth certificate turns out you're actually 110 you didn't know it
    11:59 do you suddenly want to kill yourself no of course right just being a certain age doesn't mean
    12:05 you want to die it's how you feel um how about uh let's let's pick another
    12:11 number who who would like to live beyond a hundred well that's where I'm going
    12:18 all right no no that's okay but you still got to vote and then we'll come back
    12:26 all right well let's Jump Ahead what about 150 does that sound attractive 150
    12:31 okay so it does depend so that's where we're going what about immortality
    12:36 yeah so you must really love what you you're doing all right so so here's the catch most people and and you're You're
    12:44 A Cut Above uh most audiences I speak to I can tell already most people say 80 or
    12:51 100 that's enough because they've seen what it looks like to get old but because I think I prepped you and I
    12:57 think because you think more deeply than most we're talking about being a hundred and still being
    13:03 able to play tennis and hang out with the great grandkids and live a life like we do today
    13:09 without losing your mind and that's what we're we're talking about with the things that I can tell you today and the
    13:16 technologies that are coming very soon so let's uh let me ask you again okay I'm certain none of you want have
    13:22 changed your mind about 80 but what about a hundred anybody wanna die at 100 even if you're feeling the
    13:29 same way as you do today it's enough you get you get bored with life out of
    13:35 here okay that's fair enough everyone's choice and I
    13:45 yeah living in yeah well so what one of the the points I make in my book is that
    13:52 we should have the choice to die when we want to as well right that's just as important to choosing how long you can
    13:58 live so 100 how about let's go to 150. yeah
    14:04 Maybe somewhere in between 120 what what makes you feel that way
    14:15 yeah I I pity your parents
    14:21 well you well I'm going to say that at 150 you you look and feel the same
    14:29 way you do today and so do all your family and friends
    14:34 so nothing's changed just just the number of candles you have to put on your birthday cake is there a date where you don't want to
    14:40 live anymore
    14:52 [Music]
    15:00 if it takes
    15:07 so we can get into the laws of thermodynamics I'm prepared for that
    15:13 psychologically though so here's what I'm trying to get at if
    15:18 if you don't feel any different and you've got a great career and you're surrounded by family
    15:24 and friends is there a date when you want to die
    15:29 is there a point in life where you just get bored I've seen every movie I've
    15:35 done everything I want to do my bucket list is full I want to die bang is there a date sounds like yes
    15:42 that's fair that's totally fine that's that's some people so what about immortality under these conditions of
    15:49 continuing nope
    15:58 would you um
    16:08 now that's a good question
    16:18 yeah right do we only enjoy life and have agency because we know that there's an
    16:25 expiry date very Protestant of you
    16:32 yeah no it's it's a fair point but we don't know what it's like to live without fear of death
    16:59 when you have that's right but I what I what I've discovered in my lab which most people
    17:05 don't know unless they've read the book is we've found that there's a backup hard drive of Youth in ourselves in our
    17:11 body that we can tap into and reset the system and we've res we've reset it once we we
    17:17 maybe can reset it 100 times Maybe
    17:24 uh let's talk about that let's talk about that we've only done it in mice but we can reset a mouse pretty quickly
    17:29 and pretty easily and send their age way back I'll show you how that works
    17:38 exactly so I just got off a plane yesterday from um was it Bottega Marine labs I think
    17:47 I'm messing up the name but it is north of LA and I was there collecting jellyfish
    17:53 because we're studying jellyfish in the lab because I think just like you've
    17:59 proposed that the secret of reversing aging continually
    18:06 was solved by jellyfish it was sold by a lot of life forms trees do it they can
    18:11 spawn new offspring our bodies have forgotten how to do that but what you'll you'll read about
    18:17 hopefully you'll get into the book is that we figured out that there are three genes in the body that if you turn them
    18:23 on again because they get Switched Off When We're Young turn them on again in an old animal
    18:29 and probably ourselves I would guess we get to experience what it's like to be a
    18:34 jellyfish
    18:43 let me show you the mouse because a mouse doesn't have to be in water I promise
    18:51 to tell you the clicker is not working but um let's plug it in and see if it works
    19:02 all right this is the only graph I'm going to show you all right but it's a really cool graph
    19:08 it's a graph of the longest lived
    19:13 countries in the world versus the 19th and 20th Century
    19:19 yeah see if we can get that to work so this is 1840 so the life expectancy
    19:25 average life expectancy in the best country in the world right which is
    19:30 light blue which is probably your hero is Sweden
    19:37 cool
    19:42 I'm jinxed there we go we'll get there all right so
    19:48 in 1840 the best you could do was in Sweden and you're at 45 years
    19:54 1840 cholera you could die from a splinter horrible all right into the
    20:01 kind of the modern times 1940 right it's still pretty pathetic average life expectancy the best you
    20:08 could do in the world was about 70 years and this is when we expected to retire
    20:15 at 65 and live another five years and drop off that's not the world we live in
    20:21 and it's certainly not going to be the world we live in when we're older and when when we're
    20:27 um in our late late retirement but I want to point out two things one
    20:34 is that this is this is very linear right that even though we've had advances in
    20:40 vaccines and uh and antibiotics and all of the wonderful medicine it's it's
    20:47 almost unbelievable how linear this is and uh the second thing I want to point
    20:53 out in this slide is that what these little things are you can't read them but these are estimates of the maximum
    21:01 human average lifespan so for instance this study here
    21:07 in 1921 said that that's where we're going to stop that that'll be the plateau and people won't live longer
    21:14 than that and every time these Studies have come out saying we've reached our maximum
    21:20 they've been wrong so that's the good news and we keep breaking it and you can see
    21:26 the predictions that everyone says we're going to slow down no it's true in the U.S that we're we're not going up
    21:32 dramatically currently but that's not because of educated people with Access to Health
    21:39 Care it's because there are you know the it's offset by people who are addicted to
    21:44 opioids um and other issues um not to mention obesity being an
    21:50 epidemic but that's not most of most of the people in in this town
    21:56 really um and I do get to in in the book I talk about how there's a disparity especially
    22:02 in the U.S between those who know what to do to be healthy and live longer and those
    22:09 who are trapped in a cycle where their lifespans are you know basically down here and that's why the U.S lifespan is
    22:16 what it is but that's the average and not everybody is average most people are not average yeah
    22:41 well it could but we're not we're no longer at the whim of
    22:46 Evolution we innovate okay what about this room is natural give me one thing
    22:56 the wood there's a plant cool all right
    23:01 so yeah we we probably have a natural maximum yeah
    23:07 yeah there's nothing natural seriously I was once on a plane uh with a guy who
    23:13 was flying with me to Tokyo and I told him that we're working on aging and uh
    23:19 trying to make people live healthier for longer and he goes I don't know that doesn't sound natural
    23:25 that's it are you kidding me we're drinking gin and tonics we're texting our partners we're watching
    23:30 movies ten thousand feet above the ground don't give me what's natural um so the point is that we can we can
    23:37 engineer our way out of things and we're already way beyond our natural lifespan
    23:42 right the minute we we killed off all the wild animals in this town that's a good start
    23:55 infinite brutality rage
    24:10 uh yeah so my understanding of this graph is that this is life expectancy not average lifespan so that it it
    24:18 discounts Early Childhood death but it's a good point which is that initially
    24:24 most of the gains in average lifespan were at the lower end of life and we've
    24:31 basically most of us can expect to live if we're lucky enough to get through our 40s 50s and 60s
    24:37 so we're we're coming up against the limit which is aging okay so that you
    24:43 know we can we can study childhood diseases a lot and I think that's Worthy
    24:49 but most of us now get to be old and that's what the problem the biggest problem on the planet so right now as of
    24:56 last year there are more people on Earth who are over 65 than under the age of
    25:02 five and that's the first time ever in human history and it's only going to continue to widen so our problem as a
    25:09 species is what are we going to do with all the people who are frail and cannot
    25:14 work and have to go to a nursing home that's a lot of money we already spend
    25:19 in the US 17 of our GDP taking care mostly of the sick and the elderly and
    25:25 it's only going to get worse unless we do something about it so we really have two Futures one is let's just forget
    25:31 about aging and we'll just deal with a lot of sick people who spend more and more of their percent of their lives
    25:37 being looked after or we can say this is a problem let's figure it out and let's
    25:43 fix it which is what we've done for everything that's why we we wear clothes and we
    25:48 we're indoors in a heated building um so yeah so hopefully I've convinced you at least you've seen my argument
    25:54 that it's natural therefore acceptable that argument should be thrown out the window
    26:00 we've never as a species accepted things that have caused us pain or difficulty
    26:07 just because they're natural
    26:13 I'm also going to tell you that there's no one solution to aging you might read about it it's not true
    26:20 I'm one of the world's leading scientists in the study of longevity
    26:25 we don't call it anti-aging uh because that's that's a bad word because a lot of
    26:31 people out there saying I've got your anti-aging treatment um what we're trying to figure out is
    26:38 are there genes that control the aging process and are there things we could do to turn them on in our daily lives and
    26:44 eventually with medicines and there are actually some medicines some things that I take right now
    26:49 which when you go home you can skip to page 304 and read all about that's the cheat sheet but those things we've
    26:57 learned through really hardcore World leading science so you may not know that that there have
    27:03 been at least one you could argue two Nobel prizes awarded for aging research already one was the telum the telomeres
    27:12 you know about telomeres the ends of chromosomes how those get extended and the other one is about protein misfolding called autophagy the
    27:19 clearance of these bad proteins those two things led to a Nobel Prize and I'm sure there's going to be more
    27:25 Nobel prizes awarded for other aspects of Aging
    27:32 all right so this is the anti-aging if you go online you will be completely depressed and why
    27:40 do I say that because you don't know what to believe people are saying take this pill take
    27:46 that pill this pill works David Sinclair says so it's all wrong I don't say
    27:52 any product works um but you know that this is the world we live
    27:58 in we have a world of pharmaceuticals which are essentially proven to work and a world
    28:03 of supplements which are not proven to work but there's some some academics like me
    28:09 that have maybe treated a mouse so it looks looks kind of interesting and what's Difficult about the world
    28:15 that I'm in is that I'm trying to do the the hardcore research and make medicines
    28:20 uh but every day but understandably I'm asked by people well that's great about
    28:26 medicines but I'm getting old right now what can I do now and so I I've written
    28:32 the book which covers both angles what are the medicines that are in the pipeline what are the medicines you
    28:37 could get prescribed right now that with slow aging we think but also what can
    28:42 you do in your daily lives that you don't need a doctor uh to to do I want to bring up
    28:48 antioxidants so you know I hope I don't get sued for saying this but antioxidants have been
    28:54 extremely disappointing in the Aging field longevity not anti-aging film why is
    29:01 that because there's a lot of things going wrong in the body besides free radical damage it was a good story it
    29:08 made some sense and all fables are built on things that make sense but doesn't mean they're true
    29:14 and antioxidants actually have been a large failure in the Aging field
    29:20 we haven't had a lot of success treating animals with antioxidants and making
    29:25 them live healthier or longer and even antioxidants are healthy for you
    29:31 uh yeah all right
    29:37 all right so we we've we've figured out that the molecules that
    29:43 some companies I won't name say are fantastic for you are actually working for a different
    29:50 mechanism which I'll tell you about all right
    29:56 I definitely believe in in the plant molecules and that's a whole story
    30:02 but I'll get to it and if I don't ask me at the end yep but antioxidants unfortunately not the
    30:08 cure to aging right or we'll be living 150 at this point or at least some of us
    30:14 who are eating a lot of blueberries and drinking pom wonderful every day
    30:20 um you know I'm not saying they're bad for you but I'm reminding you that that we we know a lot more but people don't
    30:26 know about it yet yeah I'll leave it there but I'll come back
    30:32 so this is what scientists scientists believe are the main causes of Aging
    30:40 these are called the Hallmarks of aging and there are eight or nine depending on which continent you come from
    30:47 and some of these you've probably heard of right they make it into the Public's um
    30:53 [Music] um perception of what we work on there is well let's see cellulose in
    31:01 essence how many of you have heard of senescence before a few yeah so what this is is that cells
    31:07 will become old and and lose their identity and they'll check out and they'll just
    31:13 sit there and that that would be not so bad if it wasn't for the fact that these senescent cells or sometimes we call
    31:20 them the zombie cells they start putting out all these other signals in the cell or outside of the cell that make other
    31:27 cells sick so that even though if you don't have a lot of senescent cells in your body even if it's only a few
    31:33 percent uh they will basically cause the rest of your body to become inflamed and aged as
    31:40 well and we know that mostly from Mouse experiments where you put a few senescent cells A little dab of
    31:45 senescent cells in the animal and the whole animal gets old so they're horrible so we don't want zombie cells
    31:52 we don't want to run out of stem cells um DNA damage genome instability so that's
    31:58 picture of DNA we've known about for many years telomeres the ends of chromosomes gets
    32:04 shorter and you know it goes on and on and on but here's the point
    32:10 this was 10 years ago and the field of Aging research we felt pretty good about ourselves we
    32:16 said yeah we figured this out put a flag in the ground we've done this we figured out what causes aging and everyone with
    32:23 very few exception has started or done uh focused their lab on this one or that
    32:29 you know there's a purple lab and there's a green lab and there's a red lab but I I've always believed that you can
    32:35 simplify everything I'm a reductionist and I think eventually we can reduce
    32:40 aging down to a single equation and I could even write it out for you if I had a whiteboard
    32:47 and I'll tell you what that is aging is essentially what's driving all of these things
    32:56 is a loss of information okay we live in an Information Age we
    33:02 know what happens when you lose information we used to lose emails we don't anymore and I'll I'll explain why
    33:10 but uh information is key and when we're born we have all this
    33:15 great information that we got from our parents and what we what we ate what we absorbed
    33:21 in the womb and how our mother was eating and feeling that's information and what we've discovered in my lab is
    33:28 that over time what's happening to cause all of those things on that pie chart
    33:34 is just one major thing and that's the loss of information in the cell
    33:41 so what kind of information I'm glad you asked I'll tell you so there are two types of information in
    33:48 biology the one you all know about is DNA genetic information it's a great way to
    33:55 store information in fact you can get information out of a fossil I can go to a mummy and see that mommy's
    34:02 DNA that's a very robust way to store information it's way better than a compact disc
    34:08 or hard drive they wouldn't last thousands of years would they so DNA is
    34:14 a great storage information and the reason it's particularly impressive
    34:19 in terms of the biological system is that it's one of the few things in our body that's digital
    34:26 and we all know digital is better the reason we converted from analog in the first place
    34:31 we don't use cassette tapes anymore for a good reason because analog information sucks anyone who's had you know is old
    34:39 enough to have cassette tapes or record player records knows that you can lose information pretty easily if it's stored
    34:45 in analog but DNA is digital a TCG that's a that's a digital code it's not
    34:51 binary it's quaternary so what is it about the body's information that gets lost over time
    34:58 turns out we used to think it was the digital information that we lost all right how many of you
    35:04 I'm sure all of you have heard I won't even ask you we've all heard that mutations Drive aging we're losing
    35:11 genetic information as we get older the problem with that is that you can delete a lot of genetic information in
    35:19 animals and they don't age it's also true that very little uh very
    35:25 few mutations can be found in our our old bodies The Smoking Gun just isn't there
    35:31 and what happened to the field a few years ago was we had no clue what was driving
    35:38 aging at the fundamental level because the old idea of free radical
    35:43 damage and mutations was out the window we had nothing to replace it with
    35:48 and so what I've proposed in the book and in some recent Publications that and some that are just
    35:55 about to come out as a radical new Theory that the other type of information is
    36:01 what we lose over time it's the analog information in the body
    36:06 and that's not very stable at all so what's the analog information
    36:11 it's this green stuff this is the DNA the digital and the
    36:16 packaging of the genome is the analog form of information but we need analog
    36:22 information because the analog system tells the cell which genes to read and
    36:28 without knowing which genes to read a cell is basically a tumor at best or
    36:33 dead we need to have these structures that say read this Gene
    36:39 but bundle up all these others so you don't read those genes all cells read every Gene a nerve cell
    36:47 wouldn't be a nerve cell and a skin cell wouldn't be a skin cell you need to be able to tell it only read
    36:53 those 10 of genes and turn off those others and what we've found during aging
    36:58 is that these structures that control how the DNA is packaged the analog
    37:04 information which we call the epigenetic information or epigenome is what gets
    37:10 screwed up with time does that make sense it certainly made a lot of sense uh to
    37:18 the people in my lab but just making sense as I warned you isn't proof of anything
    37:24 right most things that make sense are wrong um you know like
    37:29 well I won't get into religion but there's a lot of things that we we believe that probably are not not true
    37:36 so what what do you do to test this hypothesis okay what do you do you have to say well
    37:42 if I disrupt the analog information if I accelerate that process
    37:48 what should happen well we should get aging we should accelerate that process the converse should be true if I can
    37:55 regain the epigenome the app the analog information we should get younger
    38:02 and that's what we've been doing for 10 years in my lab but most of the world doesn't know about
    38:07 it yet because we haven't published it but it will come out next year so you get a sneak preview and I was also fortunate I was writing a
    38:14 book while we made these discoveries so I said screw it it's gone in the book so for the first time probably since you know a
    38:21 long time a scientist's biggest Discovery is in a in a book that you can read about before
    38:26 scientists have actually had a chance to have it published
    38:31 all right so there's that another analogy that I think is
    38:38 appropriate here is a compact disc now when I teach high school students I have
    38:44 to tell them what a compact disc is we used to put music and and movies on
    38:49 these things but it's a it's the best analogy I can give you so our genome is that is the music
    38:56 that's encoded in these ones and zeros and as we get older we're getting scratched up so the the music becomes
    39:03 it's skipping and the cell by this analogy is not reading the right songs at the right time and this If This Were
    39:11 a cell this cell would not be behaving well it would be losing its identity if it was a
    39:17 nerve cell it might be thinking that it's more like a skin cell liver cell isn't behaving cardiovascular
    39:24 system is forgetting to how to how to be a cardiovascular system and that's why we get sick as we get
    39:31 older I I believe and all of these symptoms of Aging and these diseases that we we try to
    39:38 treat but too late I think it because our cells have lost their ability to read the genes at the
    39:44 right time in the right place and that we essentially had really good evidence for for the last seven years in
    39:52 my lab and I'll show you that data but what if we could remove those
    39:58 scratches wouldn't that be amazing what if the cell could now go back and read the right genes we didn't know that that was
    40:05 possible until recently but turns out as I said there's a backup
    40:10 of these of of this original state so we can polish
    40:19 all right I have a movie to show you
    40:24 so one of the things that happens on the chromosome that disrupts the cell's identity and
    40:30 the ability to read the genes is a broken chromosome okay wherever you
    40:37 see that flash the chromosome is being broken and when you break a chromosome a cell
    40:44 gets really nervous because it it's actually the worst thing you can do to a cell because if a cell doesn't repair a
    40:51 chromosome it'll it'll die or it'll become a tumor you've got to fix it no
    40:56 question you cannot live with broken chromosomes so what I showed you in that video
    41:02 those balls are proteins in the cell that we've discovered when I was over at
    41:07 MIT and now in and more recently in my lab these proteins are what we call
    41:13 Longevity enzymes they're encoded by longevity genes
    41:19 and when we turn them on the animal is very healthy they're great we have mice that live longer and we think in our
    41:25 bodies they keep us Young but they Unfortunately they have two functions the first function is really
    41:33 important it's to maintain the structure of of the the epigenome to keep us Young
    41:40 so that's great when when we're young these proteins are in the right place
    41:46 they're sitting on the right genes and so the genes that should be on or on and the genes that should be off or off
    41:54 but as I showed you in this video their other role is that they get distracted by Broken DNA
    42:01 okay if you go out in the sun and you get sunburned you broke a lot of DNA unfortunately so these proteins are
    42:08 moving from where they should be in a panic to try and repair the DNA there's a reason for that I think that
    42:15 it's that they're moving because they're they're telling the cell there's an emergency you've got to fight you got to
    42:20 survive but if you keep doing that as I showed so this is an acceleration of of
    42:26 what I think happens during aging let's have a look again these proteins are perfect perfectly
    42:31 aligned then they get distracted by the break they go back to where they came from they go to the break
    42:38 they go back to where they came from they go to the break whoops didn't go back
    42:44 whoops didn't go back so this is aging I believe and we can test this we can
    42:49 create this in the lab in an animal and ask what happens
    42:55 and we've done that it's taken us 10 years I'll tell you a little bit about these guys
    43:09 and without them we're in real trouble you've got to regulate our genes well and we don't prepare broken DNA very
    43:16 well so people who don't have some tuits essentially die when they're going on
    43:22 oh did everyone uh on the video lose what I said
    43:29 so these genes are called sirtuins that we've worked on and uh it's pretty interesting
    43:35 um when you think about why they're called sirtuins and you probably don't know
    43:41 the first three letters of sotuin is s-i-r and that stands for
    43:47 silent which means turn the genes off silence them information regulator
    43:54 okay so it in the name of these genes has been the answer all along I believe information regulation is the key to
    44:03 longevity but breaking DNA is one of the things that accelerates aging because it
    44:08 distracts them and eventually like opening and re-gifting a present a thousand times it's going to be pretty
    44:15 ugly by that point but the question that I've been asking myself in the lab for the last
    44:20 few years is is there a treatment you can give to a cell or an old animal or
    44:28 eventually an old person that can go from there back to frame one and get
    44:33 them to go back to where they came from so that the cell reads the right genes to be a neuron a young healthy neuron or
    44:40 a young skin cell and I think we found that
    44:45 so here's the experiment in the lab where we scratched the DVD scratch the CD
    44:51 this is a control mouse that's at this point it would be 16 months old
    44:57 and we took one of its brothers or sisters and we scratch this DVD what we actually
    45:03 did was we cut the chromosome in a few places distracted the proteins and they ended up getting
    45:09 older okay and you might say well that looks like a sick Mouse but David how
    45:15 how do you know it's old well it suddenly looks old it's got gray hair
    45:22 it's got wrinkled skin it's lost its hair hair loss mice lose their hair when they get older but that's not proof of
    45:29 anything you know anybody can create a mouse looking like this you know maybe if you microwave a mouse they look like
    45:35 that I don't know don't do that at home I'm joking so what we did was we we studied these
    45:42 mice for years to find out how much do they look like real aging and they they look like real aging we've sent uh mice
    45:49 to hundreds of researchers around the world to experts on the kidney on the
    45:55 skin on the bone on the eyesight on the hearing and they look at the tissues and they say yeah that's old
    46:02 and I have to say they're not old we've given them aging but there's
    46:07 really been a breakthrough in the last few years in our ability to really know if that Mouse is older or not
    46:13 just by looking at it but by measuring its age and we no longer in my field
    46:18 count age by candles we can actually count the age
    46:23 biologically because there's a clock that ticks over in mice in Wales in bats and in our own body
    46:31 which we can measure in fact if I took your blood back to my lab within a few days and you know a fair bit of money I
    46:39 could um tell you exactly how old you are biologically and predict within a
    46:44 matter of months when you're going to die using this clock but don't freak out because we can we
    46:49 can change the trajectory we can slow it down so here's the clock
    46:55 this is the DNA right there's the uh the A C T C so C chemicals in DNA the cytosines
    47:03 they get Modified by a chemical called a methyl and a methyl is just carbon
    47:09 hydrogen hydrogen hydrogens nothing spectacular but it's like a it's like crust on uh
    47:16 well I think it's probably better analogy would be the plaque on your teeth it's accumulating and it does so
    47:21 with very predictable way over time in our lifetime so I can measure your
    47:26 methylation pattern with the DNA sequencer for a few hundred bucks and I could say
    47:34 you're older or younger for your age by this much and we know that if you smoke if you
    47:40 don't exercise if you eat the wrong things you will be older than the average human and vice versa right so this is a new
    47:48 world and it's all we could do with these mice is we could measure their actual biological Age and what you can
    47:54 see from this Okay I lied I have another graph but it's not a very complicated one obviously the one that looks old is
    48:00 older based on this um objective measure
    48:06 it's called the DNA methylation clock it's also sometimes called the Horvath clock named after my friend and
    48:13 colleague Stephen Horvath uh who actually helped us with with this study now I'm going to tell you something
    48:19 you're a smartphone so I can tell you something um really interesting but a little bit technical so stick with me
    48:26 there are enzymes that remove the plaque off your DNA called tets
    48:34 and they're very important when we're young that they're what allows the nerve cell to become a nerve cell and a skin
    48:40 cell to be a skin cell and I think a jellyfish to regenerate okay these are on when
    48:46 we're young but they you don't want these genes on when you're old it's not a good thing if they're
    48:53 deregulated but it is possible to to remove these
    48:58 um and so I'll get back to that because it's I think it's part of the understanding of how we can remove those
    49:04 scratches on the CD and reverse aging so here's where things get really
    49:10 interesting can we take that older Mouse and make it young again
    49:15 if we're right about this we should be able to remove those methyl DNA
    49:21 plaques and it might actually not just make the mouse appear younger
    49:27 in the lab when you read it but maybe it would actually behave like it was young that was the idea
    49:34 so how do you do that how do you get the clock to go backwards
    49:40 well I'll tell you that but first of all I wanted to tell you about why we chose the nervous system
    49:46 to regenerate to reverse aging in because we could have chosen the skin could have chosen the liver to reverse
    49:52 aging but nerve cells become old very quickly as soon as we're
    49:58 you know three years old if we damage our eye or we break our back our spine
    50:03 we're not going to walk again we're not going to see again we know that right it's because nerve cells become old very
    50:10 quickly and they don't act like they were when we were embryos
    50:15 and so this shows an embryonic nerve growing in the dish
    50:21 that's great but as we're as we turn into adults if you put one of our nerves in a dish
    50:27 it'll just sit there it'll try its best to try and grow but it really won't grow very well
    50:33 so we thought what if you could take adult nerve cells damage them
    50:39 or even just old nerve cells in the eye and turn their age back to when they
    50:45 were young would they grow and function like they were young again so how did we
    50:50 decide to do that well there was a Nobel Prize awarded to shinya yamanaka from
    50:56 Japan for the discovery that there are a set of four genes called the yamanaka factors
    51:02 that can take an adult cell and turn it into a stem cell
    51:08 so quite simply any high school student could take one of your skin cells in your mouth take it back to my lab or
    51:14 even to the high school lab put in these four genes from yamanaka
    51:20 which we call osk and M for short and those cells many of them would become
    51:26 stem cells not just normal stem cells but pluripotent stem cells meaning they could become any type you want we could
    51:32 regrow we could grow a little mini brain in the dish you can now do that pretty freaky will grow your own mini
    51:39 brain in the dish I don't think they're conscious thank goodness but we could
    51:44 build any tissue and that that was well worked well worthy of a Nobel Prize right so we wondered could we use some aspect
    51:52 of this discovery to reverse aging so we don't want to take them all the way back to being an
    51:58 embryo or to a stem cell you know if we did that we'd all end up with the world's biggest tumors in our bodies we
    52:05 wanted to know if we could do partial reversal and just take off the right methyls pick
    52:11 off just the right plaque on the teeth without taking all your teeth off which is what yamanaka did
    52:17 so we didn't know if it would work we had some clue because there's a scientist at the Salk Institute that a
    52:23 couple of years ago showed that if you turn on all four of these genes in a mouse it lives 40 percent longer
    52:31 but that but that sounds great until I tell you that every three days if they didn't stop the
    52:38 treatment the mice would die so that I think he may get The Nobel
    52:43 Prize for this discovery but it wasn't perfect because those poor mice were hit with these factors
    52:50 and they would almost die and then they'd let them recover for another five days and they'd hit them again this is
    52:56 not going to be a medicine anytime soon but it sure is an interesting proof of principle that you can turn on these
    53:01 things and make an animal live longer now it was a short-lived Mouse so we still have to show that this happens in
    53:08 a a regular Mouse but I'll show you what happens in regular mice when you
    53:13 when you put these factors in right so what I'm I'm showing you for
    53:18 the first time is what it was like to make a discovery of a lifetime this was the discovery of
    53:24 my lifetime these are conversations with my student Ryan who made this discovery
    53:30 he put the yamanaka factors not all four of them he found that three were safe and
    53:37 effective the you know the one at the end of M Mick he left that off because that causes cancer that's known to be a
    53:43 problem but osk put into the back of the eye regenerated the the optic nerve in these
    53:51 mice and so what you're seeing are pictures for the first time that he was sending me of regenerating optic nerves
    53:58 in mice so we had damaged the back of the eye and here we have
    54:03 hit the regrowth of something that should has no business regrowing in an adult Mouse
    54:09 but it's it was you know one of those things where you know we're kind of celebrating that
    54:14 we've we've made a big Discovery and I mention it also because when you read
    54:20 the book you'll get a sense of what it was like to experience such a discovery foreign
    54:27 so this is it this is um a regular optic nerve that's
    54:33 been damaged it's been pinched and the nerves have died off towards the brain
    54:39 so the brain is out that way and the eye is over here and this mouse has lost a
    54:44 lot of its nerves and it's never going to see again but in this mouse in the in the mouse
    54:50 I'll show you down here we've reprogrammed its eye to the young again we've put those three yamanaka factors
    54:56 in turn them on with just an antibiotic called doxycycline now it doesn't have to be an antibiotic
    55:02 sometimes people say what's so good about the antibiotic we've just engineered the system so that the antibiotic is the switch so that we can
    55:10 turn it on and off it's an easy way you just give the mice an injection of antibiotic or put it in their water
    55:15 supply so if we ever have a drug like this it may be that we get treated with the the virus which is the delivery
    55:22 vehicle and then we take an antibiotic to turn it on and off at will so we get reset multiple times anyway let me show
    55:30 you this this was the result that most of the nerves here have survived
    55:36 the problem and they started to grow towards the brain we don't know how they know where the brain is they're not
    55:42 growing up that way they're growing towards the brain that's a mystery but then we did a really cool experiment
    55:47 which was if it can make these damaged neurons survive
    55:52 what about if we give it to just regular healthy but old mice what happens to
    55:57 their vision and I don't know about you but you know I'm now in my 50s and I'm starting to become like old mice we lose
    56:04 our ability to see so here's an experiment and I need to
    56:10 give credit to um the lab of Bruce and Meredith Cassandra they are at a Mass Eye and Ear here in
    56:17 Boston and what they do is they ignore ignore the feces this is irrelevant to the
    56:23 experiment I think if if we were handled by giant things we'd be pretty upset to but
    56:30 anyway what they're doing is so he's standing on the platform and this mouse is a year old so those
    56:35 mice actually have become blind and you we know this because when these these
    56:41 lines move they don't watch the lines it's called the optimotal response so if
    56:46 I play this for you you'll see that it's not moving its head it's
    56:52 really not not looking anywhere and we can videotape this for from you know half an hour it's not going to see
    56:59 the lines but you know if we see moving lines we're going to move our head that's just
    57:05 the natural response so we took uh mice of the same age we gave them a virus
    57:12 that carried the three genes into the eye and the virus infected the nerves at the
    57:17 back of the eye in the retina and they sat there until we gave them the antibiotic antibiotic doxycycline to
    57:24 turn on those genes three weeks later after reprogramming their eyes and making them
    57:30 young again and by the way we've measured the age of the eye they do get younger based on the clock
    57:36 the question was does it work or does the clock change but that's just like a clock on the wall
    57:42 you don't really go back in time if you move the hands or if you move the hands does time really go backwards
    57:49 so this was a really good experiment and it was a really good day for for Bruce
    57:57 so what Bruce called me about
    58:02 and we get this started so it was 10 pm at night it was about a year ago and he
    58:08 calls me and he says I'm sorry it's late but I have to tell you we just had a really amazing result
    58:15 and this was the video that he sent me
    58:23 for the first time in history we've got mice that have been cured of blindness
    58:30 that's a mouse they can see and we've done this on dozens of mice this isn't just a fluke every mouse that gets our
    58:36 treatment gets their Vision back and we can measure the the neuronal activity at the back of the eye
    58:42 and we can see that those nerves before the treatment have no electrical activity but after reprogramming them we
    58:49 get the blips back they work again and we can read the pattern of genes which
    58:54 are switched on and off and genes that went off during aging come back on with treatment and genes that went on by
    59:02 accident the scratches come back to normal so we're truly resetting the
    59:07 epigenome so that cells can be young again and mice that shouldn't be seeing
    59:12 you can see again and we've done this also in glaucoma most people have somebody they know friends or family
    59:18 with glaucoma pressure in the eye damaging the retina we've tested mice with that disease and we can restore
    59:25 their Vision as well so our first drug if all goes well will be a drug to treat and restore Vision in
    59:32 glaucoma patients all right I'm now going to switch
    59:39 to more of a practical thing because we're not likely to be treated with a virus anytime soon it might happen in
    59:46 our lifetimes let's hope we're working on pills as well that can reset cells so it'll be easier than gene therapy but
    59:53 I'm going to talk about some take-home messages for all all of you
    59:58 because I'm asked this every day hundreds of emails what can I do now right don't show me mice show me what I
    1:00:05 can do and these this is um a cheat sheet there's more of it in the book page 304
    1:00:11 and I'm going to go into each of these uh in detail in a second but the summary is
    1:00:17 our three meals a day that's that's craziness I really don't think we were
    1:00:22 we've evolved E3 three full meals a day certainly not when we're over the age of say 30.
    1:00:27 so I've started to I've always skipped breakfast I'm starting to skip lunch when I can and
    1:00:33 I'm not too stressed so that that sounds pretty brutal right but if you drink coffee tea is fine you
    1:00:40 can actually be hungry and it's it's not so bad uh lose your breath you wanna
    1:00:47 yeah I do
    1:00:54 I do I'll tell you why I'll come back to it yep yep um so lose your breath you want to get
    1:01:01 on a treadmill or walk up some stairs um just move
    1:01:06 get a standing desk our lifestyles today are just atrocious for
    1:01:12 particularly this region right we're atrophying around here
    1:01:18 I know what you're thinking no our muscles our muscles are atrophy most
    1:01:24 human beings these days in Western in the Western World in the developed world we have we end up cramping up here our
    1:01:30 muscles are pathetic it's it's amazing we can even stand upright after sitting for so long so there are exercises that
    1:01:37 that I do that I'll highly recommend because every 19 minutes someone in
    1:01:42 America will fall over and die from it and mostly the elderly of course but if
    1:01:48 if you've got the strength in your hips and the flexibility uh you're more less likely to to die
    1:01:54 from a fall um and so the the kind of exercise I I do are I focus on are hip hinge
    1:02:02 exercises I'll talk about that in a second I think we need feedback because
    1:02:07 everyone gives up on diets if they don't see it working or they don't know if it's working
    1:02:12 same with supplements same with sleep so what I'm recommending and what I do with my life is that I I look for feedback
    1:02:19 you can't change what you don't measure basically and so for over 12 years now I've been
    1:02:26 measuring various aspects of my life it used to be crazy to measure yourself with blood tests and and other things
    1:02:36 you know people would say David you're too worried about stuff but actually we now live in a world where it's very easy
    1:02:41 to monitor things for a few hundred bucks you can get one of these anyone has an aura ring on them
    1:02:49 they're great I do recommend these I don't own any of this company so I can tell you they're
    1:02:55 great this will measure your heart rate your temperature your movement and be a
    1:03:01 very good feedback about how you're sleeping so if you're wondering why do I feel
    1:03:07 terrible in the morning this will tell you exactly what happened and for
    1:03:13 instance you can look at your heart rate and on a bad night my heart rate will stay high and then drop down about 5 A.M
    1:03:20 and that's if I drink more than a glass of alcohol and I have a heavy meal with a steak so I've
    1:03:27 learned to try to avoid those things if I want to have a decent day the next day but if you don't measure it
    1:03:34 you don't get the feedback the other thing that I do is I have a patch under here
    1:03:40 okay it's becoming more and more common for non-diabetics to to measure their
    1:03:46 blood sugar levels so blood sugar is a very good predictor of your longevity the higher the worse it is of course you
    1:03:53 can become diabetic but even without being diabetic it's still bad so for the last couple of months I've
    1:03:59 stuck a patch on here there's a tiny little needle it doesn't hurt you stick it on there and so on my phone I can
    1:04:05 scan it but I can tell you what my blood sugar is
    1:04:10 I wasn't going to do this but let's try so it's called the Libra link
    1:04:17 and uh let's try so it says ready to scan anyone have has seen one of these
    1:04:23 before okay so I stick this here
    1:04:29 and that's my blood sugar so I'm it's in the green zone I'm happy uh you can see that lunch caused can you
    1:04:36 see the graph lunch caused a big spike uh the food that I ate earlier
    1:04:42 good to go
    1:04:48 it's as it's as good as a glucose monitor so it's it most diabetics are
    1:04:54 moving away from a finger prick now to just putting one of these on
    1:05:01 oh yeah
    1:05:07 yeah it's been in Europe for many many years in the US about two years but I do it also because
    1:05:14 I I want to be a role model I want to be on the Forefront of this stuff but I've learned a lot of things that I didn't
    1:05:20 realize and I've also become much more aware of what I stick in my mouth
    1:05:26 like most of us I would just shove stuff in my mouth and forget about it my this was a trash can
    1:05:31 but if you see it on your phone you know then then you're thinking about what's going in
    1:05:37 and that that alone is fantastic makes you much more cognizant about what you
    1:05:43 eat and as I mentioned what you what you do for sleep so measure it yeah you keep
    1:05:48 that in when you work out I never take it out it's stuck there in showers in saunas in
    1:05:54 swimming yeah it doesn't come off unless you rip it off it's stuck there
    1:06:00 that's great uh for two weeks well you can get one from every Pharmacy
    1:06:06 it's just that you need a doctor to write your prescription so if you
    1:06:13 this one isn't in the book because I've only been doing it for a little while but Libra link there are a couple of
    1:06:20 brands Libra link yeah yeah I mean email me if you want
    1:06:33 ah so I I honestly I don't have any expectations
    1:06:38 um but I do know that people who who follow these type of
    1:06:44 recommendations uh live an average of 14 years longer than those who don't
    1:06:51 all right hormesis um did I get through all of those points
    1:06:57 oh we got through sleep and this is big Beacon 10. um I think
    1:07:03 being uh meditative is good my role in life is don't lie because it's just too
    1:07:09 stressful you just got to live life being happy with who you are so I think that's the those are the
    1:07:15 things hormesis is what doesn't kill you makes you stronger unfortunately we do have to push our
    1:07:21 bodies or they become complacent and what we've learned through my lab's research and others is that these
    1:07:27 longevity genes these sirtuins they're only activated hyperactivated when your
    1:07:33 body thinks that it's going to die doesn't mean you have to go to the brink of death but you do need to get out of
    1:07:39 the chair you do need to be hungry you do need to sometimes have fewer approach
    1:07:44 amounts of protein because that's what switches on these defensive genes
    1:07:50 and it's worse if you become obese and it's worse as you get older their activity goes down and down and down
    1:07:56 until basically you're at the whim of entropy second law of thermodynamics
    1:08:01 your toast but we can turn on our bodies natural defenses and the way to do that is is
    1:08:09 basically give yourself a little bit of adversity that may feel uncomfortable sure being
    1:08:15 out of breath is not great being cold and in a sauna not that comfortable but
    1:08:21 what it does is it triggers these defensive responses if you go too much of course if you freeze or you burn or
    1:08:28 you starve you're not going to live longer but a little bit goes a long way
    1:08:33 and we know this from many studies even plants respond to hormesis you spray herbicide on a plant a little bit and it
    1:08:40 will grow better because it turns on these defenses and we didn't know these defenses existed until just about 20 years ago
    1:08:49 so I'll get to the antioxidants because that's an important point
    1:08:58 [Music] s it decreases your metabolism
    1:09:06 well calorie restriction which is the the old term for uh for intermittent
    1:09:13 fasting is known to actually speed up metabolism it's act it actually what happens is
    1:09:19 your body goes into this defensive State when it's really hungry particularly for prolonged periods of
    1:09:25 hunger maybe not missing a snack but for a day or two what happens is the body starts to burn
    1:09:32 energy so it'll deplete the fat and it'll rev up your mitochondria
    1:09:38 so mitochondria the battery packs the power packs of the cell animals that are hungry have more of
    1:09:44 those than less so actually you burn more
    1:09:49 when you're hungry it's it's interesting we always thought you became tired mythology it's not true and what we
    1:09:56 think is going on is that the body thinks that it's under threat and it gives you more energy to survive so
    1:10:03 that's repair your body have more energy to go find food run away from a saber-toothed tiger that might be
    1:10:09 attacking you right but unfortunately Modern Life all of the
    1:10:14 the companies whose job is to to make us feel better have done a great job of
    1:10:20 making us feel better we feel great at the expense of our longevity
    1:10:26 commercially available no
    1:10:33 there isn't unfortunately you've got a feel it yeah well this will tell you
    1:10:38 that you're hungry but you don't need that to tell you that um
    1:10:44 no unfortunately there isn't um that would be amazing that we should work on
    1:10:50 there might be a patch that senses things in the blood that can see when things are perfect because it right to
    1:10:56 get this right we don't know the perfect mix the things I told you are my my best
    1:11:03 estimate based on the science and personal experience and epidemiological but the question is if
    1:11:09 you exercise a lot do you then take the supplement or should you be hungry on the days you
    1:11:16 don't exercise we don't know the combinations yet so we have to figure that out
    1:11:21 yeah yeah it's complex we're just at the point of understanding what works but
    1:11:27 not necessarily in combination all right so this is where things get
    1:11:32 scientific and where I bring in the free radical stuff these are the three main defenses that
    1:11:38 you can turn on in your body to live longer the sirtuins are the ones that we work on and they require a molecule called
    1:11:46 NAD to work those enzymes there are seven I mentioned in the body
    1:11:51 so you can turn them on a few ways you can raise your NAD Levels by exercising
    1:11:56 being hungry or taking molecules that raise NAD the one that I'm taking
    1:12:03 page 304 is called nmn not to be confused with M M's do not well you can
    1:12:09 eat M M's you just won't live longer it might be 66 is a drug that we're
    1:12:15 developing for diseases such as Frailty there are what are called the
    1:12:21 accelerators these are the fuel these are the accelerators we call these sirtuin activating compounds whereas
    1:12:28 virtual the red wine molecule is a cert-1 activator so that's why when we gave this molecule
    1:12:34 to mice they were resistant to obesity because the the mice the bodies of the
    1:12:39 mice thought that they were hungry thought that they were exercised but they weren't we just tricked them using
    1:12:45 the red wine molecule but we've made some much better molecules we've actually made 14 000 versions since for his virtual one
    1:12:53 of these has gone into humans and actually was in a small group of people effective in psoriasis which is in an
    1:13:00 inflammatory skin condition so you know we've come a long way we know if we feed these molecules to mice
    1:13:06 they live longer this one even um works on mice the synthetic one
    1:13:12 so that's the sirtuins again exercise being hungry we'll turn these on NAD boosters we'll turn them on
    1:13:19 ampk that's the middle leg to the stool this is the one that metformin will
    1:13:24 activate metformin is a drug for type 2 diabetes it's probably used by oh at
    1:13:30 least 50 million people around the world probably more It's relatively safe as drugs go
    1:13:35 the worst complaint typically is an upset stomach which you can usually mitigate with food
    1:13:40 or a coated pill and it turns on this pathway which is combining with the sorts these are talking to each other
    1:13:47 this evolved to sense the levels of energy in the body and when you didn't have enough energy in the body let's say
    1:13:53 you were really hungry it would turn on so these are protective Pathways the
    1:14:00 last one the third major one is called mtor which was discovered by David sabatini at MIT and it senses how much
    1:14:08 protein you're taking in and when you have low amounts of protein it will defend your body because it thinks that
    1:14:13 you're running out of food so these are all hormesis sensors bad stuff's happening
    1:14:19 these genes get turned on and they protect you from disease and aging
    1:14:25 so what do you want to do you want to not overload yourself with a ton of proteins so carnivores I'm sorry it
    1:14:33 doesn't it's not backed up by the data because you're not going to invoke this guy here mtor
    1:14:39 doesn't mean you you have to avoid meat completely but it does mean that I think constantly eating meat isn't the right
    1:14:46 thing to do besides what I like about eating vegetables you can eat a lot more of
    1:14:52 them so you're not hungry this one you can activate by actually
    1:14:57 not eating as much food regularly eat less often you've got less glucose
    1:15:02 as you can tell I'm monitoring that and then this one exercise also being
    1:15:08 hungry and you can boost your NAD with a pill now do we know this is all going to make
    1:15:14 us live 30 years longer no that's why I showed you the slide that you know we
    1:15:19 don't know if this is true or not but it's it's been basically done in in
    1:15:24 hundreds of labs there's thousands of scientific papers and it's all we've got right now you
    1:15:30 know those of us who are born in the 20th century wasn't our fault you know probably you'd be better to be
    1:15:36 born now if you wanted the best of medicine but we have to go with what we've got and this is the best we've got
    1:15:41 right now based on all the science that we've got
    1:15:53 non-diabetics I take it and I'm not diabetic I'm not
    1:16:00 waiting around till I get diabetic my father is taking metformin he's
    1:16:05 borderline diabetic yeah you do so but type 2 diabetics
    1:16:13 right so the the data as as you'll read in the book is really compelling
    1:16:19 type 2 diabetics that go on Metformin people have monitored their other rates
    1:16:24 of diseases what happens to the rate of heart or frequency of heart disease
    1:16:29 Alzheimer's Frailty and cancer and some cancers are reduced by 40
    1:16:36 percent by this one medicine and those type 2 diabetics are more
    1:16:42 are healthier than people that don't even have diabetes and that's in 100
    1:16:48 over 100 000 patients so it I take 500 in the morning
    1:16:55 and 500 at night if I yeah so typical diabetic would take two grams
    1:17:01 is that what you recommend for your patients um so I take half that
    1:17:07 and my father takes double that
    1:17:18 yeah right so there were the blue there were the blue zones where people are known to
    1:17:25 typically live a long time and one of those places is Okinawa the island of Okinawa in Japan
    1:17:32 and they do all the right things they're mostly plant-based they have a little bit of protein you need protein so they
    1:17:38 have a bit of fish but mostly it's plants they're very active so they're exercising a lot raising their NAD
    1:17:46 and they only eat till they're 70 full and they stop that's their habit and
    1:17:52 they're not exposed to Western hamburger type food but the okinawans
    1:17:57 who moved to Hawaii they don't live long it's definitely what they're doing as a lifestyle so
    1:18:04 yeah you you it this all makes sense that we've got this convergence of people who study lifestyle and have said
    1:18:11 these things make you live longer and those of us who have studied yeast cells and worms and flies and mice and we've
    1:18:17 come to the same conclusion that there are genes that protect us so
    1:18:23 what about food I'll go quickly because I'm sure you've got questions uh
    1:18:29 I think eating three meals a day is not the right thing I mentioned that earlier but if you are hungry in the morning
    1:18:36 by all means have breakfast but try to find a meal that you can go without
    1:18:41 for me it's breakfast and I actually know that now because I've measured my glucose levels
    1:18:47 and my body starts to produce a lot of sugar just as I wake up not everybody but some people I sent my data when it
    1:18:54 first happened I said what's happening I'm glucose overloaded in my body and I'm not eating anything so I sent him a
    1:19:01 picture of that graph and he said either you're liver is making glucose you're
    1:19:06 one of the people that does that or you've just had sex
    1:19:12 so I said does it count if you dream about it uh anyway so it's obvious that uh that
    1:19:18 my body's making glucose so I don't need to eat breakfast I've never felt hungry at breakfast so for me to have breakfast on top of my body making sugar makes no
    1:19:25 sense at all I often miss lunch because I'm so busy today I had a vegetable soup
    1:19:31 just because I was stressed out but that's my lifestyle I eat normal dinner
    1:19:37 if anything I eat too much at dinner but I haven't I really like that
    1:19:42 I do drink red wine one glass of wine a day is not going to hurt anybody except
    1:19:47 for the calories but still worth it in my view how much red wine would you need to drink to be like these mice that
    1:19:53 lived longer the bad news is that you'd need to drink about 300 400 glasses a day
    1:20:00 so don't do that um yeah well some people think that's
    1:20:06 really good news but um the the take-home message is that I
    1:20:12 think that taking or drinking a glass of red wine for 30 years
    1:20:18 can have cumulative effects and it's not just Resveratrol it's in red wine there are other molecules that are beneficial
    1:20:24 as well so probably the combination is helpful and very long-lived people often
    1:20:29 admit to drinking red wine more than more than the rest
    1:20:35 why I'm not sure why they choose to well the
    1:20:43 oh but why is red one better oh that's that's easy to answer yeah because the
    1:20:49 Skins like the Skins have the Resveratrol and uh pulls it out with the
    1:20:54 alcohol actually most of it is in the in the actual stem but we throw that away
    1:21:01 in terms of supplements I have a newsletter if you want to subscribe I write about this stuff you
    1:21:09 can sign up on my on the website it's called lifespanbook.com
    1:21:14 but um often people say well where do I get Resveratrol if it's not red wine and
    1:21:19 I have to be careful because I'm a professor at Harvard Medical School
    1:21:25 I'm not a supplement maker I'm not a supplement seller and I don't recommend supplements but I think it's unfair for
    1:21:32 me to say this is what the sign says you're on your own that's not fair either so what I can say is that there
    1:21:37 are companies that make Resveratrol uh most of them are fine they're look
    1:21:43 for the really pure ones if you're going to try it you can get 98 Pure or 100 pure
    1:21:50 Resveratrol and that that should be fine I would just recommend don't keep it out
    1:21:55 in the light um I store mine in the fridge I store all my supplements in the fridge
    1:22:02 particularly those NAD boosters the anime that I mentioned it's a little known fact but it's
    1:22:08 actually quite unstable if you keep it on the shelf for long for over a few months uh but yeah so that I I can't mention
    1:22:15 companies um unless you grab me on the side whatever but there are a lot of legitimate
    1:22:23 companies that are making pure Resveratrol it doesn't come from red wine they purify it from Japanese
    1:22:28 knotweed which is everywhere it's on the on the
    1:22:34 roads here on the side of the road here in in Boston all right so that's food we can get into
    1:22:39 more things about food later what about the antioxidant yes I'll I'll tell you about that
    1:22:47 um nope I'll tell you in a minute I've got a few more things what to do um move walk everybody says this but
    1:22:54 it's really really true but it's also more important to to lose your breath becoming hypoxic we'll turn on this
    1:23:01 returns yes very expensive
    1:23:10 what's wrong with it well so what we think is that
    1:23:16 when your body has low blood sugar it will turn on those Pathways now if
    1:23:22 you're eating a snack which probably has sugar in it or carbohydrate
    1:23:27 you'll you'll basically stop your body from turning on the defenses
    1:23:34 yeah so think of your body as something that only protects itself when it needs to and
    1:23:40 when it doesn't need to it puts on fat instead for a rainy day which Never Comes so what we want to do is to do the
    1:23:48 opposite which is be hungry and in in those periods of hunger your body will actually be
    1:23:54 repairing itself yeah unfortunately the recommendation from nutritionists which I disagree with
    1:24:01 is that you should never feel hungry lots of little snacks throughout the day which is based on the idea that you
    1:24:08 don't want to hurt your pancreas but actually being hungry if you're not
    1:24:13 sick is very helpful yeah now I I skipped a meal or two a day
    1:24:20 there are some people who go for three days and some people who go for a week without eating and I would do that if I
    1:24:26 could it's pretty painful though has anyone tried intermittent fasting have you yeah
    1:24:33 is it okay can you do it yeah not a week now
    1:24:41 yeah yeah it's hard I mean we want to be full we don't want to be hungry
    1:24:47 um it does so there's a Doctor Peter attia
    1:24:55 have you heard of him he's an expert in New York he does a week and I don't know how we can do that
    1:25:02 probably because three million people are watching him
    1:25:07 he does a week fast every quarter
    1:25:17 yeah he does intermittent fasting but he's he's using his body as an experiment so
    1:25:24 he's mixing it up sometimes he'll just go Keto sometimes he'll do protein and he's
    1:25:31 monitoring with uh fingerprints what's happening to him so of course he has one of these but he's
    1:25:36 also got you know you can measure ketos in your blood yeah yeah
    1:25:42 so he's done all that um and he's he's trying to come up with the right algorithm of what the right
    1:25:48 combination is because it if we waited for clinical trials
    1:25:54 we'll all be dead it's it's expensive and slow so there are these people on the frontier I'm kind of on the frontier
    1:26:00 but he's he's one of the major ones who's really pushing it so that that's food if you want we can
    1:26:08 come back this is the the hip exercises that I like to do
    1:26:14 it's uh you don't want to just bend your back you've got to keep it straight like a rod and you stick your butt out
    1:26:20 and then you lift dumbbells like that it's it's pretty annoying but it it's very
    1:26:26 good what happened to me writing this book was that I end up with a permanent cramp
    1:26:31 in my butt the piriformis muscle which is that one there uh was seized up
    1:26:39 and I couldn't walk it was permanently painful and these exercises were the only thing that fixed me and that's
    1:26:45 apparently very common with our modern lifestyles and I think it's going to be great when I get older
    1:26:52 that I'll have full movement and back exercises too so you don't end up with
    1:26:58 uh kyphosis like my mother who was walking around like that what else can you do well this is one of
    1:27:04 the enjoyable things actually I really do like the sauna and when I was writing the book my editor said what about cold
    1:27:10 therapy what about heat therapy and I said that's not true that doesn't work how can that possibly work
    1:27:16 but I researched it and it turns out there's good evidence that saunas are
    1:27:21 good for you and increasing evidence that cold plunges are also good for you and a lot of the evidence is written
    1:27:29 into the book so in the back you'll find there's a lot of endnotes references that you can look up
    1:27:34 a lot of people read the book two or three times because it's got a lot of information but I do this every weekend
    1:27:39 with my son as we were talking about before and it's bonding with my 12 year old son it's
    1:27:46 good for the both of us and especially in winter it's nothing better than going through this and feeling refreshed like
    1:27:52 you've just been out at the beach so I spend about 15 minutes in the sauna it's been found that people who do that
    1:28:00 have lower rates of cardiovascular disease for example um though I do point out that
    1:28:07 one caveat with those studies that I cite is that if you're in hospital or you're in the nursing home you're
    1:28:13 probably not going to go to the gym or to the sauna but that's caveat I think it's probably
    1:28:18 working to turn on those longevity genes now cold plungers this is all the rage
    1:28:24 now right you can go cryotherapy Iceman Hof is a superstar on the internet
    1:28:30 um some of the research that we've done has actually shown that cold therapy is good it turns on some of the sirtuins
    1:28:37 the sirtuin genes number three produces an enzyme that protects the mitochondria
    1:28:44 free radical damage so when you're revving up metabolism by being cold you're actually helping the cell rid
    1:28:52 itself of free radicals but you're also building up what's called Brown fat and if you haven't heard of brown fat
    1:28:58 it's because it's a relatively new discovery so babies have a lot of brown fat and beige fat
    1:29:05 but we thought that adults didn't have ground fat but it turns out
    1:29:10 we do and the colder we are and the more cold we are when we walk outside the more Brown fat we'll have because it's
    1:29:17 our thermogenic or heat producing fat and it's very healthy to have it
    1:29:24 um so I I spend more time in the cold these days than I want to and Boston's a pretty good place to be
    1:29:29 cold the other thing that I learned in terms of a biohack is don't always bundle up and the best
    1:29:36 place to lose weight and to to get to burn energy is while you sleep
    1:29:42 super easy just don't have such thick covers on your bed have a sheet I mean
    1:29:48 don't shiver you've got to get a good night's sleep but being a little cold has actually really been helpful to me
    1:29:53 and I think I'm burning off you know a few hundred calories maybe at least 100 calories just by having to be a little
    1:30:00 cool at night so that's an easy easy life hack uh this one's a little harder
    1:30:06 we jump my son and I we jump from the sauna into a four degree Celsius Celsius
    1:30:11 water bath which feels extremely painful it's does anyone do ice plunges cold Plunge
    1:30:20 tell you what if it doesn't make me live longer it sure sure does make me feel grateful to be alive
    1:30:28 my son actually Benjamin he's he's going for the for the world record at least
    1:30:33 he's on record I can spend a minute before my my body aches and he's in
    1:30:38 there for 15 minutes says what's the problem dad I don't know he was born in New England
    1:30:43 that's why all right metformin we covered so I won't go into too much detail you do
    1:30:49 need a prescription unless you go to Bangkok or somewhere where you can just buy it in a pharmacy it comes from a a
    1:30:56 plant that you find throughout Europe it's just a weed it's a version of a weed molecule called quantity
    1:31:02 guanoid and Metformin Works does multiple things
    1:31:08 remember I said it it's important to have mtor modulated it does that
    1:31:13 it controls your glucose it lowers it that's why you're prescribing it but it also has anti-inflammatory action it
    1:31:20 inhibits DNA damage prevents free radicals um it stops cancer so it's a remarkable
    1:31:26 molecule now it wasn't developed to be an anti-aging drug oops I should say longevity molecule but
    1:31:34 it sure looks like it is one so that's your best bet I think besides all the other things in life that you can do
    1:31:40 now you might say well gosh how am I going to get it I don't have diabetes yet I'm gonna have to
    1:31:45 I'm gonna have to talk to my doctor about that so more and more doctors are learning about this the sales of or
    1:31:52 prescriptions from metformin have gone up uh 20 in the last few years
    1:31:57 and uh brilliant I didn't even have a doctor that gives me metformin
    1:32:04 uh though I uh anyway it's it's a it I I'm not
    1:32:11 recommending it but I'm telling you that the future is here now and there are options
    1:32:17 all right this is the one I've been wanting to get to because it gets back to antioxidants everybody that I talked
    1:32:24 to thinks that red Wine's good for you and blueberries are good for you because of antioxidants that's why we've been
    1:32:31 taught it's a huge marketing campaign and it makes sense the only problem is it's not true
    1:32:37 the major benefits of Resveratrol are not its antioxidant properties it's
    1:32:42 actually not a very good antioxidant in the first place a lot better ones what it is
    1:32:49 this chemical here Resveratrol it's actually sensed by our body I
    1:32:54 believe our bodies have evolved to sense the Plant World and what we eat is turning on our
    1:33:01 defenses so why would the body respond to plant molecules besides food
    1:33:08 well if you're running out of food let's say your crops are dehydrated or the
    1:33:14 berries that you're picking are have a terrible infestation of
    1:33:19 caterpillars now we can see that but for most of the
    1:33:25 evolution of of animals they didn't have much of a brain they couldn't tell that time was going to get tough so they
    1:33:31 needed a way to sense when food was going to be scarce and the best way was to sense the chemicals of plants
    1:33:39 when they're stressed so what is Resveratrol it's actually a
    1:33:45 plant stress survival molecule when plants are dehydrated or hit with ultraviolet light too much sun infected
    1:33:52 by Fungus they make a ton of Resveratrol because they're trying to turn on their
    1:33:57 sotoan survival defenses plants have sorts right and I think we've evolved to sense that
    1:34:04 and we've just lucked out that we produce a product that concentrates it and preserves it keeps it away from
    1:34:11 light keeps it cool and keeps out the oxygen pretty good luck it tastes good too but it's also healthy and most of
    1:34:18 the longest lived people in the world uh drink this stuff so it's probably good
    1:34:24 but we can do better we can make molecules that are a thousand times more effective than Resveratrol
    1:34:30 this is not an antioxidant but it does the same thing as Resveratrol because it activates the sort one enzyme to defend
    1:34:38 the body what does sort one do remember I said that it's moving around trying to repair DNA and protect the genome
    1:34:44 and and stop the scratches I think that by drinking these these
    1:34:50 molecules and giving those enzymes more activity we're actually keeping the cell
    1:34:55 from becoming scratched and We Know It Works in a very accurate way these molecules
    1:35:01 bind to the blue region of the enzyme so an enzyme it's just a protein that's doing reactions in the cell this this
    1:35:09 enzyme will go and tell this Gene to be off and while leaving the other one on right remember it's a silent information
    1:35:15 regulator what it does is remember the the original slide where I
    1:35:20 showed the DNA and then there was that green blob that green blob is a histone and
    1:35:29 that's what wraps up the DNA and if you're observant you would have seen that that green thing had little
    1:35:34 tails swimming off it those are called histone tails and what this enzyme does
    1:35:40 is that it controls the chemicals that attach to those Tails telling a gene to
    1:35:46 be silent or a gene to be switched on and when you don't have enough of this
    1:35:51 enzyme around you're old you're not drinking or eating the right things your genes will come on when they shouldn't
    1:35:57 and that's aging and so it works by binding here these molecules bind here and the enzyme does
    1:36:04 this and when it's in this act in this position it's much more active and it does its job quicker
    1:36:11 all right we're almost done this is the nmn the NAD booster these are the
    1:36:18 crystals of it that we're turning into a drug and this uh this molecule when you feed
    1:36:24 it to mice that are old they can run in some cases twice as far at least 50
    1:36:30 further we had some ice that outran the young mice and one actually
    1:36:36 ran over three kilometers and the treadmill stopped we have little treadmills in the lab and the treadmill
    1:36:43 stopped and and my the postdoc in the lab called me up and said we've got a problem the training wheel's broken the
    1:36:49 experiment screwed up and uh turns out it was just that the software was never written for a mouse to run that far so
    1:36:56 we had to rewrite software so that's we're hoping that in clinical trials
    1:37:01 we'll see that we can treat a variety of diseases I mentioned Frailty but it could be a whole bunch of
    1:37:08 things related to aging that we end up treating it's in clinical trials we we've tested it for two years and people
    1:37:14 seems to be very safe I apologize for black mice on a black
    1:37:19 treadmill there's the mouse there's the mouse do you see it can you see a tail
    1:37:24 so that's the one on Animan and that's the one that didn't get any we just put in their drinking water they drink it for a few weeks and four weeks and they
    1:37:32 become fit so why are they running further you might ask well they have more energy
    1:37:37 but they also have more blood flow it's as though they've been exercising because that's what happens when you
    1:37:43 exercise better blood flow more energy and then finally I just want to just
    1:37:50 have a glimpse into what the future might look like I told you we can we have a gene therapy
    1:37:56 that can reverse aging in a mouse's eye but what if it works in people what if
    1:38:01 it works in the whole body to reset the age of somebody I just chose Bill Murray
    1:38:06 um because I like gomari but you know he's he's aged right like everybody but
    1:38:12 imagine if if when we're young we get this injection of the gene therapy so now we're genetically modified but the
    1:38:19 genes are not turned on yet they're just like in our mice they're switched off they're not doing any harm
    1:38:25 and then you get to this age I don't know how old is Bill Murray now would he be 60 or something maybe even more
    1:38:31 anyway you get you get to a certain age and your doctor says I've just measured your biological age
    1:38:36 you're actually 85 you're not doing so well Mr Sinclair
    1:38:41 but I've got something for you fortunately you've got these three yamanaka factors in your body I'll give you a course of Doxycycline to turn on
    1:38:49 the genes so you get sent home with basically an antibiotic for Lyme disease not not a
    1:38:55 problem take it for three weeks and imagine you know you start to see better you don't have to see them hold the menu
    1:39:02 so far away you can think better you're fit and you even look younger that's the
    1:39:07 kind of future that this technology says could be possible and then I just want to give you an
    1:39:14 example this is uh exhibit a in my family we are
    1:39:19 a group of at least on my Hungarian side a group of Ashkenazi Jews that uh change their
    1:39:27 religion in World War II but we couldn't change our genetics we have terrible genes
    1:39:32 uh you probably know ashkenazis are not the healthiest people on the planet and I'm carrying a bunch of mutations so
    1:39:38 I'm not predicted to live a long time in fact most men in our family diet in their 70s my grandmother had a stroke in
    1:39:45 her 30s super high cholesterol right I'm on I'm on huge amounts of of Lipitor just to
    1:39:53 keep my cholesterol down so we are not a healthy bunch so my grandmother she became
    1:39:58 she was she remember she was a young at heart vivacious woman Rebel
    1:40:04 I watched her get old at age 70 she didn't want to go out of the house and she spent 20 years basically in a state
    1:40:11 of vegetative kind of state that is something that a lot of people
    1:40:17 uh expect in their lives it's pretty normal for us to spend 10 years
    1:40:22 not wanting to live anymore her son my father
    1:40:28 was born 1939 yeah people always get confused about
    1:40:34 those dates that how can they be so close but I've told you I think she was pregnant at 14 but in any case
    1:40:40 my dad um he wasn't expecting to live beyond 70
    1:40:45 in a healthy way just like his mum he retired at 67
    1:40:52 he thought that he would um uh probably end up in a wheelchair like
    1:40:58 his Grand his mom and he wasn't very happy he was quite a depressed guy he's like uh Winnie the
    1:41:05 Pooh in uh no so he's like Eeyore in Winnie the Pooh so he's not a very um optimistic guy
    1:41:14 if if he was here he'd probably say uh you know the temperature's not very good and and why are we wasting our time
    1:41:21 we're all gonna die anyway that kind of attitude in life and I was there like no no this is great we can do this so
    1:41:28 anyway he's a scientist he was a bike he's a biochemist and he saw the research and he saw that I was still
    1:41:34 alive after taking a few of these things and he decided to take it as well so
    1:41:40 he's been now on the same regimen as me um not just those three things but a few
    1:41:47 other things as well including a lot of exercise don't get me wrong there's other things going on
    1:41:53 but I'll tell you what he's um he's now 80. uh he started us a new career he's
    1:41:58 gone back to work he just ordered his dream car uh he just got it last week at Tesla Model 3. and
    1:42:06 he's optimistic I can't believe it I mean he's looking forward to another 10 20 years of life so I'm not saying that
    1:42:12 this is proof of anything but I am holding him up as a role model a Beacon of Hope
    1:42:18 for us and I'll show you some photos from the last 12 months of his life
    1:42:23 right this is not a typical 80 year old he's doing everything he always wanted we just got back here he is he led the
    1:42:30 way up the rainforest in Uganda he took his five grandkids up to see the gorillas
    1:42:36 and it almost brings a tear to my eye to think about how special that day was that he got to do that with his
    1:42:43 grandkids and my my kids got to do that with their grandfather that's what this is all about this isn't about us living
    1:42:49 forever it's about spending quality time with your family instead of being in a nursing home
    1:42:56 um so we're very proud of of him we hope he continues we hope it goes well and then uh I just want to finish by
    1:43:03 saying uh thank you for getting a copy of the book I hope you like it it was a lot of work I have a co-author
    1:43:10 we were we spent over a year brainstorming how to put this all together there's philosophy there's art there's
    1:43:17 history there's science all in there so he gets a lot of credit uh and uh
    1:43:24 I drew some cast of characters so they're in the back too I actually was trying to use photos of
    1:43:31 people and the publisher said uh David you've only got four weeks before this
    1:43:36 has to be done and none of those photos are allowable because they're they're
    1:43:41 copyright protected and I said well what if I what if I talk to people online and get their
    1:43:48 permission no because you have to track down who took the photo I mean I don't know who took the photo
    1:43:54 right so I had to draw a Lisa most people don't know but that's one of those inside secrets that I had to draw
    1:44:00 all these and I only had a month to draw them so it was one every day for a month
    1:44:05 and there are a lot of really cool people this is the guy that trained me at MIT this is the woman who figured out
    1:44:12 that you could double A worms lifespan by changing one gene that's probably a Nobel Prize worthy Discovery my friend
    1:44:18 Rafa de Cabo we spent Thanksgiving with he's the world's expert in calorie restriction
    1:44:24 nearby is the world's expert in metformin for aging he's down in New
    1:44:29 York and shinamai discovered that NAD is important and in a man are important
    1:44:34 for this return so these are all really cool people some people are really ancient so let's see we've got some
    1:44:41 historical figures up here this is this is Mr yamanaka yamanaka
    1:44:47 factors uh Eileen crimin studies human epidemile demiology anyway this is uh so
    1:44:54 there are illustrations in the book did you have a chance to flick through there are actual illustrations drawn by Katie
    1:44:59 Delphia she's a brilliant artist examples of her drawings
    1:45:04 my childhood in Australia my grandmother me at MIT
    1:45:09 Benjamin gompertz who showed the rate of uh population decay
    1:45:17 why we age how it evolved the CD analogy with the cell I didn't get into this but
    1:45:24 you can imagine the epigenome as a landscape of balls Landing in valleys
    1:45:29 and aging is that the balls move into the wrong valleys and then met Foreman
    1:45:34 Resveratrol NAD rapamycin does anyone know where rapamycin comes from
    1:45:40 ah can you see those heads up there you know where they're from
    1:45:46 what's the name of Easter Island the other name
    1:45:52 rapanui rapamycin so it comes from Easter Island there was bacteria that
    1:45:57 were found on Easter Island so I'm done thank you so much excellent
    1:46:06 [Applause]