2023-06-26 - Interview Dr. David Sinclair - The Longevity Experts - Why We Don't Have to Age & How to Fight Aging

    From Longevity Wiki



    0:00 thank you [Music]
    0:26 I've heard you say that there's no biological law that says we have to age which is which is a pretty radical
    0:33 statement break that down for us a bit we tend to think that what we see is inevitable and it used to be the case
    0:39 for the speed of humans on the planet we used to think that horseback was the fastest humans could
    0:46 go we used to think that when you got an infection from a splinter that went gangrenous that was the end of that limb
    0:53 or death we used to think that childbirth was always going to be potentially lethal uh these things we we
    1:00 used to think were inevitable now we're in a world where I'm trying to let the world know that aging is no longer
    1:07 inevitable um and in I'm a biologist I'm a geneticist at Harvard where I've been
    1:13 studying this for close to 30 years now and there's been no evidence from my lab
    1:18 or any lab around the world that has found evidence of any mechanism that tells us
    1:24 that we must age there are processes that we've identified that happen over time but we found that those are highly
    1:30 malleable we can slow them down and even in the last few years almost completely completely reset the system and reverse
    1:38 aging and so I I challenge anyone to correct me when I say that aging is not
    1:45 inevitable and also that there is a limit to human
    1:50 lifespan where's the evidence for that there are plenty of species that live a lot longer than we do and genetically
    1:56 they're not that different from us and with the technology that we have today like let's say we stop developing

    How long can we live

    2:03 technology today what do you think the upper limit is of how long people can live
    2:08 well with today's technology uh if you have the means I actually think we're
    2:13 pretty close to being able to prevent most cancers and heart disease and diabetes so those major killers are
    2:19 already largely preventable and I'm including things like DNA tests for
    2:25 cancer and MRI scans so yeah not everyone can afford those yet but shortly they hopefully will be able to
    2:32 so if we stop technology right now I think that with a good diet and that knowledge and
    2:38 lifestyle the average person could probably make it to 95. you know there are plenty
    2:43 people who don't have the the knowledge or the means to do the right thing and that's one of the things that I'm doing
    2:49 is education but I think that we're about to completely blow past human uh
    2:57 longevity expectations and history of longevity so right now people who don't
    3:03 look after themselves bring the average down there's covert there's drug addiction uh that brings the average
    3:08 down across the planet especially in the US and so the average is almost 80 years
    3:13 old here but those people who um look after their bodies from an early
    3:18 age and do the right things and live long enough to to be able to reap the benefits of today's technology
    3:25 um not even the future ones um can expect to live into their 90s my
    3:31 father looked after himself late in life and he's now 84 and as healthy as he's ever been in his whole life so these are
    3:37 the this is what people can expect now even with today's knowledge and technology and where do you think like where where

    The big breakthroughs

    3:45 you said we're kind of like at the point we're hitting some of these breakthroughs what are the big breakthroughs that have to happen to go
    3:52 from let's say people living into their 90s to people living into their 150s
    3:58 well they're happening in real time actually uh every week there's another breakthrough in aging research it's it
    4:04 was a slow field when I started in yeast cells we were excited to make a yeast Cell live 30 longer that's 1995
    4:11 technology uh things are happening at a rapid Pace we've got the discovery that there's a
    4:16 backup copy of Youth in every cell in the body that can be tapped into where curing my lab and companies that I've
    4:24 started and others that are competing with mine or at least uh friendly competition uh are showing that that
    4:31 it's not that difficult to reverse the age of an animal um we've done this in mice many times
    4:37 now it's not that difficult a high school student could do it with the knowledge that we have now
    4:42 um we're at the point where we're awaiting uh next week we'll announce results in monkeys for age reversal
    4:49 we're curing blindness using this technology out of my lab so we you know I would say that the Wright brothers are
    4:56 flying already do we have Commercial Air flight do we have a Concord yet no but
    5:01 we know it's possible to fly so it's really not a question of of uh if anymore it's just a question of when
    5:07 these Technologies become widely available so what's gonna what has to happen we need to figure out a safe way to
    5:13 reprogram tissues in the body and eventually the whole body uh we already have done some clinical
    5:19 trials in my companies we have positive human data that shows that we can slow down and reverse some aspects of Aging
    5:26 biochemistry and the body can be reversed such as cholesterol levels blood pressure these are all doable with
    5:32 today's technology out of my lab there's a new technology which is even better than that which is a little a little bit
    5:40 behind that we haven't gone into humans but we are in monkeys as I mentioned that in the next two years will treat
    5:46 our first patient it'll be uh to cure blindness
    5:52 um and so you know the answer really is that I think we've already made a lot of the breakthroughs that can extend human
    5:58 lifespan by decades um getting to 150 I don't think those breakthroughs are that far away given
    6:04 how fast the field is going right now the investment in the billions of dollars into not just Labs but in
    6:11 particular industry that has virgin just since our paper in 2020 showing that age
    6:17 reversal is safe age reversal is possible so I'm I'm 49 and let's say relatively

    How long will I live

    6:23 healthy like what what what's a prediction and have have some money I can spend on some of these things what's
    6:30 a prediction for the average person like me like how how long is somebody like me going to live do you think yeah I think
    6:37 you need to throw away any uh preconceived ideas by looking at your parents and certainly your grandparents
    6:42 uh we are going to live very different lives we're actually approaching a big inflection point for those who are alive
    6:47 when these Technologies come on board in the next decade um so the point is if you know you're
    6:52 young uh or but some people who are in their 70s 80s and 90s
    6:58 you got to stick around do your best to live as healthy as possible seek the best medical care
    7:03 uh get scanned if you if you want to detect cancer invest in your health is
    7:08 the point you know you can invest in coffee every morning from a certain store down the road or you can invest
    7:14 that same money and afford an MRI scan for cancer so stay alive for yourself at
    7:20 your age uh things are going to happen rapidly by the time you're my age I'm now almost 54. uh the technology
    7:27 hopefully will be here that you can be prescribed in medicine uh to not just
    7:32 slow down aging but reverse parts of your body for for age Eyes Ears uh
    7:39 probably other parts of the body and uh and certainly within our lifetimes we're
    7:44 going to see a dramatic change not just in what we can do to the body which I believe is going to be reset multiple
    7:50 times but the approach of medicine the approach right now of medicine and doctors around the world typically is
    7:56 well come see me when you get old and sick and and then I'll treat you yeah
    8:01 well that's waiting till the end stages of 8 aging cause problems we call them diseases but they're really the
    8:07 manifestations of this process called Aging which we Now understand is a universal process across the body in the
    8:12 same same process and different tissues that we call Alzheimer's and diabetes and heart disease these are all the end
    8:18 products of this same process of information loss in the body which we call aging and uh those diseases are
    8:26 currently tackled at the end of life we need to tackle them uh early and doctors
    8:31 will have the attitude and it's happening right now thanks in part two people have read my book and
    8:37 and the wave of longevity science they're looking at patients now some of the leading doctors and saying we can
    8:45 treat aging itself we can start early we could take someone in their 40s and use
    8:50 today's knowledge technology to prevent that process or at least prevent it um for another decade or two and when you
    8:57 do that then what happens is you stay healthier for much longer and that's going to be a big shift as well it's not
    9:03 just technology it's the approach of medicine as well and you mentioned these like things like getting MRI scans and

    MRI scans

    9:09 some of these other kind of like tasks to do early detection on things and one
    9:15 of the and I I recently got a MRI scan which I thought was very very helpful full body MRI scan but I can imagine for
    9:22 certain people um there's going to be a lot of false positives with these things and there's going to be other types of things to get
    9:29 people to worry and the stress of some of these early detections may not outweigh like knowing about it like how
    9:36 do you think about that or is it like hey okay if you happen to be a more neurotic person you have to work on that
    9:42 first or how do you think about when you're when you're when you're advising friends to do these things
    9:48 um yeah I think that that's a big mistake and I've heard a lot of people say that and particularly doctors
    9:54 um I think that that's that's misguided for the following reason there are plenty of
    9:59 tests that we do on pregnant women for children looking at the risk of say
    10:05 having um a child with Down syndrome yep it's not proof but it's evidence that we
    10:10 might want to follow up um same truth is true for these MRI scans
    10:15 someone who's young uh like the two of us I regardless as relatively young we want to get a baseline reading of what
    10:22 do we look like now and then compare that every year and see what changes it's the changes that are
    10:28 important you don't go in necessarily like the Deltas every year every two years or something like that yeah and
    10:35 it's no longer just a doctor looking comparing before and after there's AI systems already commercially available
    10:41 that allow a machine to say oh that part of your body just changed in the last
    10:46 year let's take a look at that or monitor it a little more closely maybe you want to come in for a scan every six
    10:52 months to keep an eye on that you know it's not all about a waiting till you see a tumor it's about knowing how your
    10:59 body's changing and getting ahead of that and it's not just cancer that you see with these scans you're looking at changes in your prostate size your gut
    11:05 health your bone health your brain health your blood vessels all of these things are important to monitor changes
    11:11 of and get ahead of it before it actually becomes a disease now I'm having Brian Johnson on the
    11:17 podcast soon he's trying to spend a couple million dollars a year to reduce his biological age you're an avid
    11:24 tracker of your own biomarkers do you have like an official kind of
    11:30 figure for your own biological age and how does one even like determine that
    11:35 well there are lots of ways um a very simple one is if you cross your legs and sit on the floor how easy is it for you
    11:41 to stand up without touching the floor if you can do that you're you're doing well uh someone middle age typically has
    11:48 to push themselves off with one hand and if you're in your 80s you might need to get onto one knee that's easy
    11:54 um but that's not very accurate the real data comes from blood tests or cheek swabs what I've been doing for now a
    12:01 dozen years is monitoring my blood work I don't do it that often I'm not like Brian where I'm doing uh you know lots
    12:07 of different tests and taking lots of supplements but I do believe that without measuring anything you're Flying
    12:13 Blind like driving a car without a dashboard nobody would do that uh who's saying
    12:18 um and so take some blood tests there are some ways to do that you can ask your doctor or go to some of the commercially available
    12:24 tracking sites I've been an investor and an advisor to inside tracker for many
    12:30 years um and they've been looking at my blood work and they and I together developed an algorithm to estimate one's
    12:37 biological age using that and according to that test I'm in the top two percent
    12:43 of people of my age for youthfulness I'm about 10 years younger based on that than my actual age so I'm 43. there are
    12:50 other tests there's DNA methylation tests I launched a company recently called Telehealth which is for testing
    12:56 epigenetic age which is measuring your DNA uh chemical changes and so there are
    13:02 a variety of ways there's no one test to rule them all I'd like to do those two kind of tests to give me an idea of how
    13:08 I'm doing but most importantly it's about looking at the changes and see how you're doing and trying to correct those
    13:14 errors or non-optimal numbers that can occur over time and you want to adjust things you want to be scientific about
    13:20 it to me it comes naturally of course I'm a scientist um so you measure a change measure again
    13:26 that's the the way to go about life I think and optimize your body and often
    13:31 I'm asked you know tell me what to do Professor just tell me what pill should I take now there are some rough rules
    13:37 but really everybody's different everyone has a different genetics different background different lifestyle
    13:42 different history different parents different environment and so you need to monitor yourself but I agree you know
    13:49 it's not easy to do what Brian does there's no way everyone can afford it let alone spend as much time on it but
    13:54 for very little money you know investment like giving up a cup of coffee or the money that it would take
    14:01 to have a Year's worth of those coffees you can spend that on your own health and you'll reap much greater Awards or
    14:07 rewards than you'd get from drinking a cup of coffee and if you can afford it do both thank you

    Hot Cold

    14:12 yep now I I read your book lifespan I took extensive notes and actually changed a lot of my own behavior and
    14:19 would love to dive into a couple things one things that you got into in the book was this kind of idea of hot cold
    14:26 um and I I had a little trouble just following the science of that even though I now do it because it's fun
    14:32 um why why is this kind of hot cold combination good yeah so the big breakthrough
    14:39 um well one of the big breakthroughs in the field that I was fortunate to be part of in the 1990s was the discovery
    14:45 of longevity genes and they exist in all life forms except viruses uh and uh and
    14:51 viruses hijacked them to infect us so that's you know still important there but yeah these longevity genes exist in
    14:58 yeast and plants that's also important plants that we eat have longevity
    15:03 activating molecules uh but really the point is that these longevity genes we discovered in the early 2000s respond to
    15:10 biological adversity sometimes we call it stress but I don't think stress is the right word because it invokes
    15:17 psychological stress which is not what we're talking about we're talking about cells and tissues and organs
    15:22 sensing that the food supply or the environment or having to run away from a
    15:29 saber-toothed tiger or an invading Army is dangerous and without danger our
    15:34 bodies are complacent we don't like to waste energy so we put our energy into building fat and uh and at the expense
    15:42 of getting older um and and staying young so that the
    15:47 problem really is that our society is built to make us feel comfortable and take away any perceived threats to our
    15:54 survival we don't have to go hungry most of us we don't have to run if we don't want to even our suitcases have wheels
    16:00 on them we go up elevators and our body says perfect great I don't need to put energy
    16:06 into activating longevity genes and they don't and what we end up with is early
    16:12 aging rapid aging diabetes heart disease as a result of the lifestyle that we have which is an abundance rather than
    16:19 an adversity memetic as we call it as I like to call it and so hot and cold those are similar as exercise and
    16:27 fasting are that they invoke this defense response adversity pneumatics
    16:32 and so you can do that so it's really about just it's about the stress yeah um and it's a it's a very uh and and


    16:39 doing hot and cold or doing like interval trainings or or um you know doing some sort of
    16:45 um some sort of fasting type of thing it's a very low risk way of of stressing
    16:51 your body right well you can always overdo it if you stay in a sauna all day you're probably not going to reap the benefits
    16:57 or if you freeze your body parts same with exercise you can overdo it and fasting of course if you don't eat for a
    17:04 month it's probably not going to be good either so you know you can always go too far but the concept is called hormesis
    17:09 which is what really doesn't kill you makes you live longer and and that's what I recommend people live by is that
    17:16 don't listen to the marketing uh from companies that want you to eat as much
    17:21 as possible and snack between meals listen to your body listen to me hopefully and others like me like you
    17:26 know bars alive my good friend who say that you want to put your body in a state where it it feels like it's
    17:33 working or feels like it needs something and food and exercise and hot and cold are the best examples of that

    Interval Training

    17:43 on the interval training side is it uh obviously the stress is probably a
    17:49 really good thing what else is why what is the other big reasons for this kind of like interval workouts and why
    17:55 they're better yeah well it's the shock to the system um most of what we've learned is that
    18:02 you can you can eat as much as you want during one meal but then you you taper
    18:07 it off during the day uh same with exercise you can sit around but but then
    18:13 you want to put your body into a hypoxic state where you're panting and cannot carry out a conversation and it's mixing
    18:20 it up it's it's the contrast between relaxation and the hormesis the the
    18:26 adversity it's not so much the constant adversity which we know constant adversity is not as good as mixing it up
    18:32 athletes know this uh people who train their brain know this um and it's it's
    18:38 so that's the good news is you don't always have to be running on a treadmill slowly or walking to get the benefits
    18:44 you can just push yourself hard for 15 minutes three times a week and get really great benefits same with heat
    18:50 same with cold do it shock the body get out and do something else yeah one minute cold shower or whatever
    18:56 just something crazy yeah you know I will freely admit that I'm pretty lazy I I try to be a role
    19:03 model as best I can but um I often snack um because I'm stressed I often don't exercise in fact I rarely
    19:10 exercise like I should um but I do know the science and I do think that um doing a little bit goes a long way

    Cured Meats

    19:17 now one thing you um on the diet side you you advised cured meats like cold
    19:22 cuts and bacon like why is that oh well there's a lot of science about
    19:28 uh nitrogenous uh compounds so those nitrates
    19:34 um are damaging of to DNA and there are two problems with damaging your DNA one
    19:40 is that it'll cause mutations to your genome which is the digital information in the body and that's a cancer type of
    19:46 thing cancer is the main readout of that we used to think it was also aging but actually there's more and more research
    19:51 saying that it's the other type of information in the body that's more important for aging which is the epigenome The Regulators of the the
    19:59 genes um and that's what we are manipulating in my lab to control the aging process
    20:04 forward and backwards and so when you take nitrogenous compounds what you're doing is breaking chromosomes
    20:09 um and that we've shown leads to aging because the body has to react to fix that DNA and in doing so it eventually
    20:17 loses the ability to regulate the DNA itself okay got it now you're you're a big fan


    20:24 of nmn and before I read your book I had never even heard of nmn why why is that
    20:31 good well now we're talking about research uh from my lab in the early 2000s we found
    20:36 that the sirtuin longevity genes that we've my team and well I should say my mentors team Lenny guarante uh
    20:43 discovered certain so let me tell you about sirtuins these are seven genes in our body some of us have better versions
    20:49 than others and in general it's it's found that they protect the body against diseases ranging from um Alzheimer's to
    20:56 diabetes now these genes are get Switched Off over time the the main role is to make enzymes
    21:02 that tell the body how to survive during adversity so when you're exercising and dieting and in sauna they come on
    21:09 protect the body but the problem is as we get older they become less active and one of the biggest problems is that for
    21:17 their activity they require a a little molecule in the body a very abundant one
    21:22 called NAD NAD is required for life it's involved in chemical reactions but it's
    21:28 also used as a sensor for the body of adversity when we have no adversity we're eating a lot and
    21:34 sitting around NAD levels go down that's true as we get older as well so a 50 year old has half
    21:40 the levels of a 20 year old for NAD um and what we like to do is to boost the
    21:48 levels of NAD back up to youthful levels and mimic exercise mimic dieting or even enhance those modalities now we've even
    21:56 got um human clinical trial data I was mentioning one of my companies has done clinical trials already for the last few
    22:02 years and by raising NAD levels we can actually improve human health and we hope that this will be a drug one day to
    22:08 treat diseases ranging from kidney failure to even covid-19 survival
    22:15 so what about nmn well nmn is a precursor that the body uses to make NAD and by ingesting nmn we've shown in
    22:22 humans that you can raise your NAD Levels by about two to three-fold um and that's beneficial uh in humans
    22:29 based on clinical studies um you know when I say I'm a fan you know I'm not selling the stuff a lot of
    22:34 companies claim that I'm involved with uh selling it that's not true I spend
    22:40 fair amount of legal fees on trying to stop that um but yeah any NAD boosters as they're
    22:47 called seem to be really beneficial I take nmn um and I've been doing so for probably about eight to ten years and uh
    22:54 so far so good I've only seen benefits some people ask about and so basically you're saying the goal is to increase


    23:01 your NAD um one way to do that is through exercise you know you can do that by
    23:07 fasting sauna um but there's this other way to do it is to take this nmn
    23:13 um essentially it's a softball elements and you and and that can also boost your NAD
    23:19 uh yes that's what the science is saying and others have shown to improve six minute walk so it's being used for
    23:25 performance uh endurance and overall health it's not proving that it extends
    23:30 lifespan in fact we've only just recently found it extensor mouse's lifespan and haven't published that yet
    23:35 so it's early days we still have a lot to go on or to do at least but other
    23:41 side effects for taking it or their um or does doing one thing make it
    23:47 harder to do something else or it doesn't seem to be I mean mice in mice there's a couple of studies in some
    23:53 rare cases of genetically inbred mice that don't have an immune system uh that
    23:59 they there's hints that cancer might spread slightly more frequently in a very small
    24:05 study but these are mice that are in bread and have no immune system so it's still full steam ahead with human
    24:12 clinical trials there's been no Adverse Events in any of the patients that have been tested um or the subjects I should call them
    24:19 um and yeah so I'm I'm not yet ready to say that there's any known uh or at
    24:24 least uh tangible provable risks that uh you know I want to be the first person to know if there's a risk because yeah
    24:30 football takes it my friends and family take it I take it um so I'm not I'm not selling it I just
    24:36 want to know the science but I do know that my father is too old to wait till 100 proof that this extends lifespan you
    24:43 and I are getting to that point where we can't wait um and so that's really what I'm doing is I'm educating the public about the
    24:50 risks and rewards there are a couple of male studies that I want to point out but you know all weight up I think that
    24:58 the risk right now for me and my family is it's worth taking that risk until
    25:03 until further notice now you also take Metformin um and um and


    25:12 um like I don't even know how to pronounce it but sorry oh it was virtual where's virtual yeah yeah
    25:18 um and you know uh and often I'll you know when I talk to my doctor he's like well I feel like you know maybe you're a
    25:25 bit too young to take metformin and I mean yeah I I often encourage my patients who are let's say 60 or over
    25:31 but it has some side effects and that it makes it a little bit less likely to build muscle mass and stuff like that
    25:37 like how do you weigh some of those things uh well let's start with when should you
    25:42 start um I had a a real um heart to heart with my doctor when I was 29. I had super high cholesterol
    25:49 levels and he said I don't want to put you on a medicine because you're too young and I said dude
    25:56 it I don't want to wait till I get heart disease to go on a medicine get put on me put it on put me on it now
    26:03 so I've I've always been of the philosophy that it doesn't matter what age somebody is
    26:09 you treat everybody the same way you know within reason of course 20 year olds are a bit young for this kind of stuff but if you're in your 30s and you
    26:16 want to uh prevent heart disease prevent diabetes I think that it's perfectly
    26:23 fine uh under Dr supervision taking medicines that will prevent disease especially when does these medicines are
    26:30 extremely safe you do it under doctor Supervision in case there's a problem but with metformin for example and
    26:35 certainly Resveratrol very very very rare that somebody uh gets so sick that
    26:41 it's a problem and it's it's always reversible as well you just stop taking it if you get sick so these are risks I
    26:47 think are worth taking I don't prescribe anything I don't even recommend anything publicly so I would say talk to your
    26:53 doctor you know it's if they say you're too young I would keep fighting it I would show
    26:59 you your data and if if you want there's always alternative doctors um I just I think that the the argument
    27:05 that when you're young it's too early I you know there's a there's a at least I

    Building muscle mass

    27:11 heard that there's this trade-off of like okay it's hard to build muscle mass building muscle mass is very important
    27:16 as you get older um and so um and so you know so you have to figure
    27:22 the trade well it's frustrating to me as a scientist that
    27:28 when somebody says something in public or someone a podcast just says it's a problem it becomes locked into the
    27:35 Public's Consciousness and unfortunately nobody ever goes back and reads the actual paper that this
    27:41 came from and that that was also true for the women's health initiative and breast cancer people still believe that
    27:48 HRT causes breast cancer and uh that turns out it doesn't same for metformin
    27:53 and exercise when you look at the data uh and it's really easy to see it's not
    27:58 difficult you can look at it the graph that says there's a difference uh first of all is being manipulated in a way
    28:04 that is deceiving they cut off the y-axis so that you're just seeing the very tippy top of the bars and the
    28:10 actual difference is about five percent um and it turns out that that five percent is almost certainly due to
    28:18 people just not doing the extra couple of reps in the exercise because they feel a bit more tired so what's the
    28:24 solution well if you don't mind having muscles that are five percent smaller then no big deal those muscles
    28:31 are just as strong and healthier um and have less inflammation I don't care if my muscles are still 95
    28:38 there I'm not trying to win any contests for a bodybuilding but I can also I can
    28:45 avoid metformin on days I work out no big deal or force myself to do a couple more reps when I feel tired that's all
    28:51 it is I wouldn't say that that's a reason not to take Metformin there are other reasons such as gastric uh
    28:57 gastrointestinal issues that's more of a an issue but I think it the point here that I want to make is
    29:03 make sure that the science is true and the data that you're getting is true don't just believe pundits or even uh
    29:09 you know doctors who are saying this stuff try to go to the paper read it or listen to scientists who do read papers
    29:16 and also just measure yourself do it under Dr supervision make sure that it's not harming you make sure you feel fine
    29:22 and then by all means in my view it's worth starting in your 40s to maximize
    29:27 your lifespan because we're aging every day it doesn't just begin after the age of 50 or 60.
    29:33 now initially I was actually kind of skeptical to the idea that like big subsets of the population would adopt
    29:39 any of these anti-aging Lifestyles but then I saw a couple of studies that say 10 of Americans are already intermittent
    29:46 fasting every single day over 25 percent have already tried it maybe intermittent
    29:51 fasting is is not the best one to measure because it's kind of easy to do you just kind of skip breakfast and so
    29:57 it's kind of a simple relatively simple thing to do but how optimistic that you actually will see widespread Behavior
    30:04 changes well we are in in the midst of a revolution in people's wellness and how
    30:12 active they are in their own health pandemic was a major wake-up call to
    30:17 people who stared in the mirror and saw their own mortality and then there was a boom in home testing because people
    30:24 didn't want to go into doctor's offices for obvious reasons and so it's becoming also easier for people to take home
    30:30 tests now we don't want people you know going rogue and testing themselves and
    30:36 trying to interpret themselves with chat gpt4 and Beyond I don't think that's the
    30:41 only solution I think there's a risk that we won't have enough doctor supervision and some people overdo it
    30:48 there's always that risk so there's a caution here I do think though that there's a place for people taking their
    30:54 own health into their own hands you can't always be supervised by your doctor when you're at a restaurant
    30:59 people do need to realize that most of what affects their health in the future is up to them not their doctor and what
    31:06 you do every day in your life Echoes for decades and that changing a lifestyle
    31:13 is as important if not more important than the medicines you will take and that's why I think that this revolution
    31:19 that we're seeing in the population not just in the US but around the world is a great thing and
    31:27 will only become more prevalent and in 20 years it'll be the majority of people will will be on board with monitoring on
    31:35 health it's going to get easier and easier with devices as well cheaper and cheaper and we'll look back at
    31:42 two years ago when almost nobody did this and think that going to your doctor once a year for an annual checkup and
    31:48 having the doctor bang in your knees and cough uh will will send medieval in fact even to us today it seems medieval
    31:56 yeah it's in the intermittent fasting one it's while it's you know maybe uh 10
    32:01 of the population it seems like it's it's probably closer to 40 percent of my friends oh yeah and
    32:07 um and one I think one of the reasons is well besides the fact that it's relatively easy to do
    32:13 um it's maybe one of the easiest ones to to to to to do of of all the of all the things that people prescribe
    32:20 um it's also also pretty easy to to at least for people to believe that has low
    32:26 harm um and because if you say to somebody stop eating meat or something like that
    32:32 first of all I think that's hard for people to do because they they love they might love their meat and second they may they may show you 40 studies of how
    32:39 that actually could do harm to them um whereas and so uh so it's it's kind
    32:45 of like this both things that come in of why people may change behaviors
    32:51 yeah absolutely and everybody's different some people like hot and cold therapy some people don't um yeah sizes
    32:57 for some it's not for me although I know it's important to do